Estimation of Dynastic Life-Cycle Discrete Choice Models
This paper explores the estimation of a class of life-cycle discrete choice intergenerational models. It proposes a new semiparametric estimator. It shows that it is root-N-consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. We compare our estimator with a modified version of the full solution maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) in a Monte Carlo study. Our estimator performs comparably to the MLE in a finite sample but greatly reduces the computational cost. The paper documents that the quantity-quality trade-offs depend on the household composition and specialization in the household. Using ...
Home Economics: The Changing Work Roles of Wives and Husbands
The labor force participation rate for married men has dropped, while the rate for married women has risen. Husbands may be working part time or even staying out of the workforce, while wives?who have become more educated?are more likely to work full time.
What is the source of the intergenerational correlation in earnings?
This paper uses a dynastic model of household behavior to estimate and decomposed the correlations in earnings across generations. The estimate model can explain 75% to 80% of the observed correlation in lifetime earnings between fathers and sons, mothers and daughters, and families across generations. The main results are that the family and division of labor within the household are the main source of the correlation across generation and not just assorting mating. The interaction of human capital accumulation in labor market, the nonlinear return to part-time versus full-time work, and the ...
Breaking Down the Gender Wage Gap by Age and by Hours Worked
In this study, the gap is compared from one generation to the next. The changes in the wage gap are linked to changes in labor supply and to ?statistical discrimination??when women pay a price because many other women are less attached to the workforce than men are.
What Accounts for the Racial Gap in Time Allocation and Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital?
This paper analyzes the sources of the racial difference in the intergenerational transmission of human capital by developing and estimating a dynastic model of parental time and monetary inputs in early childhood with endogenous fertility, home hours, labor supply, marriage, and divorce. It finds that the racial differences in the marriage matching patterns lead to racial differences in labor supply and home hours of couples. Although both the black-white labor market earnings and marriage market gaps are important sources of the black-white achievement gap, the assortative mating and ...
Gender Pay Gap May Be Linked to Flexible and Irregular Hours
The gender pay gap persists, even within occupations and even though women?s educational attainments are surpassing men?s. Is it because women tend to choose jobs with hours that are more irregular than those taken by men?
Intergenerational Mobility and the Effects of Parental Education, Time Investment, and Income on Children’s Educational Attainment
This article analyzes the mechanisms through which parents? and children?s education are linked. It estimates the causal effect of parental education, parental time with children, and parental income during early childhood on the educational outcomes of children. Estimating the causal effects of time with children, income, and parental education is challenging because parental time with children is usually unavailable in many datasets and because of the problem of endogeneity of parental income, time with children, and education. The authors, therefore, use an instrumental variables approach ...
Understanding the Gender Earnings Gap: Hours Worked, Occupational Sorting, and Labor Market Experience
This article documents life-cycle gender differences in labor market outcomes using longitudinal data of a cohort of individuals from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. As in other datasets, the gender earnings gap increases with age. We find that hours worked and labor market experience are the most substantial observable variables in explaining the gender pay gap. We also focus on patterns in occupational changes over the life cycle, as a large part of pay growth occurs when workers change jobs. We find that college-educated men, on average, move into occupations with higher ...
Interlocked Executives and Insider Board Members: An Empirical Analysis
This paper asked the question of whether the behavior and compensation of interlocked executives and non-independent board of directors are consistent with the hypothesis of governance problem or whether this problem is mitigated by implicit and market incentives. It then analyzes the role of independent board of directors. Empirically, we cannot reject the hypothesis that executives in companies with a large number of non-independent directors on the board receive the same expected compensation as other executives. In our model, every executive has an incentive to work. Placing more of ...
The Impact of Juvenile Conviction on Human Capital and Labor Market Outcomes
This article documents the long-term relationship among juvenile conviction, occupation choices, employment, wages, and recidivism. Using data from NLSY97, we document that youths who are convicted at or before age 17 have lower full-time employment rate and lower wage growth rate even after 10 years into the labor market. Merging the NSLY97 with occupational characteristics data from O*NET, we show that youths with a juvenile conviction are less likely to be employed in occupations that have a higher on-the-job (OTJ) training requirement and these high OTJ occupations have higher wage and ...