The Effect of Globalization on Market Structure, Industry Evolution and Pricing
he Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute and Swiss National Bank enlisted researchers from both sides of the Atlantic for a conference focused on the determinants and dynamics of prices in a globalized economy. Increased globalization has heightened research and policy interest in external factors as drivers of inflation. Firms? pricing decisions are at the core of the analysis.
Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe
One hundred trillion dollars?that?s100,000,000,000,000?is the largest denomination of currency ever issued.1 The Zimbabwean government issued the Z$100 trillion bill in early 2009, among the last in a series of ever higher denominations distributed as inflation eroded purchasing power. When Zimbabwe attained independence in 1980, Z$2, Z$5, Z$10 and Z$20 denominations circulated, replaced three decades later by bills in the thousands and ultimately in the millions and trillions as the government sought to prop up a weakening economy amid spiraling inflation.
The Conquest of Mexican Inflation
From the 1970s through the mid-1990s, Mexico lurched from one crisis to another, its monetary and fiscal framework a source of instability that impeded long-term growth. By adopting best practices in central banking in the latter 1990s?granting the Banco de Mxico independence and mandating price stability as the central bank?s primary goal?Mexico began installing a framework that has proven remarkably successful.
Immigration Policy in an Era of Globalization: A Joint Conference with Southern Methodist University
Migration is sometimes termed the ?last frontier? of globalization. While markets such as those for goods and financial exchange are highly globalized, labor markets remain largely domestic. Only 3 percent of the world?s population have migrated from their country of birth. The paucity of migration means that large cross-country wage differentials persist, exacerbating global inequality. It also suggests that large gains from enhanced labor mobility remain possible.
Understanding Trade, Exchange Rates and International Capital Flows
Global trade collapsed following the financial crisis in 2008?09. Imports and exports plunged in major trade countries, and global trade suffered the biggest contraction since World War II.
Oil-Rich Venezuela Tips Toward Hyperinflation
Venezuela, once the wealthiest nation in Latin America, is suffering a dramatic reversal of fortunes and the worst economic crisis in its history. Though the nation has crude oil reserves of close to 300 billion barrels?the world?s largest such holdings?many Venezuelans go without the most basic goods in an economy plagued by chronic shortages.
The financial crisis, trade finance and the collapse of world trade
As economic activity in many parts of the world started to recover in the latter half of 2009, trade volumes picked up.
The Trilemma in Practice: Monetary Policy Autonomy in an Economy with a Floating Exchange Rate
For many emerging-market economies, swings in the global financial cycle make the trilemma more of a dilemma. Without restrictions on international capital flows, monetary independence is not possible, even for a country with a floating exchange rate.
The Political Economy of International Money: Common Currencies, Currency Wars and Exorbitant Privilege
The Political Economy of International Money: Common Currencies, Currency Wars and Exorbitant Privilege? conference was held at the John Goodwin Tower Center at Southern Methodist University on April 3?4. It was sponsored by the Owens Foundation and the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas? Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute.