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Keywords:federal funds 

Discussion Paper
Measuring the Ampleness of Reserves

Over the past fifteen years, reserves in the banking system have grown from tens of billions of dollars to several trillion dollars. This extraordinary rise poses a natural question: Are the rates paid in the market for reserves still sensitive to changes in the quantity of reserves when aggregate reserve holdings are so large? In today’s post, we answer this question by estimating the slope of the reserve demand curve from 2010 to 2022, when reserves ranged from $1 trillion to $4 trillion.
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20221005

Journal Article
Have Lags in Monetary Policy Transmission Shortened?

The Federal Open Market Committee’s monetary policy has expanded beyond changing the federal funds rate to include forward guidance and balance sheet policy. Using these tools may shorten lags in monetary policy transmitting to inflation. Using a proxy funds rate that incorporates tightening from these additional policy tools, we find evidence of a shorter lag in policy transmission to inflation since 2009, though with high associated uncertainty.
Economic Bulletin , Issue December 21, 2022 , Pages 3

Working Paper
Modelling Overnight RRP Participation

We examine how market participants have used the Federal Reserve?s overnight reverse repurchase (ON RRP) exercise and how short-term interest rates have evolved between December 2013 and November 2014. We show that money market fund (MMF) participation is sensitive to the spread between market repo rates and the ON RRP offering rate as well as Treasury bill issuance, government sponsored enterprise (GSE) participation is more heavily driven by calendar effects, dealers tend to only participate when rate spreads are negative, and banks generally do not participate. We also find that the effect ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2016-023

Which bank is the \\"central\\" bank? an application of Markov theory to the Canadian Large Value Transfer System

Recently, economists have argued that a bank's importance within the financial system depends not only on its individual characteristics but also on its position within the banking network. A bank is deemed to be "central" if, based on our network analysis, it is predicted to hold the most liquidity. In this paper, we use a method similar to Google's PageRank procedure to rank banks in the Canadian Large Value Transfer System (LVTS). In doing so, we obtain estimates of the payment processing speeds for the individual banks. These differences in processing speeds are essential for ...
Staff Reports , Paper 356

The mechanics of a graceful exit: interest on reserves and segmentation in the federal funds market

To combat the financial crisis that intensified in the fall of 2008, the Federal Reserve injected a substantial amount of liquidity into the banking system. The resulting increase in reserve balances exerted downward price pressure in the federal funds market, and the effective federal funds rate began to deviate from the target rate set by the Federal Open Market Committee. In response, the Federal Reserve revised its operational framework for implementing monetary policy and began to pay interest on reserve balances in an attempt to provide a floor for the federal funds rate. Nevertheless, ...
Staff Reports , Paper 416

The Impact of the Additional Appropriations on Federal Spending in the Fourth District

Headlines regularly report large changes in federal spending. But despite recent additional appropriations, it appears that the federal funds flowing into the Fourth District in 2023 have returned to their prepandemic levels relative to the District’s gross domestic product.
Cleveland Fed District Data Brief

Journal Article
To Reach the Fed’s Inflation Target, Interest Rates May Have to Remain Restrictive for Some Time

The Federal Reserve has raised the federal funds rate by 500 basis points since March 2022. But how tight is the current policy stance? We account for the federal funds rate, inflation expectations, and the natural rate of interest and find that monetary policy has only been restrictive since 2023:Q1. We find that to bring inflation down to 2 percent, the Federal Reserve may have to keep the federal funds rate in restrictive territory for some time.
Economic Bulletin

Money Markets and the Federal Funds Rate: The Path Forward

Remarks at the MFA Outlook 2019, New York City.
Speech , Paper 332

Balance Sheet Reduction: Progress to Date and a Look Ahead

Remarks at 2024 Annual Primary Dealer Meeting, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, New York City.

Discussion Paper
Who Is Borrowing and Lending in the Eurodollar and Selected Deposit Markets?

A recent Liberty Street Economics post discussed who is borrowing and lending in the federal funds (fed funds) market. This post explores activity in two other markets for short-term bank liabilities that are often perceived as close substitutes for fed funds—the markets for Eurodollars and “selected deposits.” 
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20240513


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