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Journal Article
How Are Businesses Responding to Climate Risk?

Understanding what kinds of climate-related risks businesses could face is part of the Federal Reserve’s work to support a thriving economy and well-functioning financial system. To advance these goals, the San Francisco Fed surveyed businesses in its nine-state region to learn how they perceive and approach climate risk. Findings show that businesses view a changing climate as a moderate risk to their activities, particularly through possible regulation changes, higher input costs, and variations in demand. Many businesses are adopting formal risk mitigation strategies, including ...
FRBSF Economic Letter , Volume 2022 , Issue 06 , Pages 06

Journal Article
The Value of Loyal Customers

Is there a rational reason that stock prices in some industries greatly exceed book values? The answer may lie in the idea that customers are capital.
Economic Insights , Volume 2 , Issue 2 , Pages 11-17

Working Paper
Multinational Firms' Entry and Productivity: Some Aggregate Implications of Firm-level Heterogeneity

Despite the microeconomic evidence supporting the superior idiosyncratic productivity of multinational firms (MFN) and their affiliates, cross-country studies fail to find robust evidence of a positive relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and growth. In order to study the aggregate implications of MNF entry and production, I develop a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model with firm heterogeneity where MNF sort according to their own productivity. Entry and production of MNF contribute to aggregate productivity growth at decreasing rates over time but potentially crowd out ...
Working Papers , Paper 2010-043

Revisiting the Discourse on Dynamism

In remarks to local business economists, Philadelphia Fed President Patrick Harker gave his economic outlook and discussed new research that may help to explain why business dynamism has declined in the U.S. for several decades.
Speech , Paper 163



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