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Journal Article
Searching for More Impact: Impact Data on Banks for the Big Picture

How can an investor ? looking to invest in or place deposits in a bank in Chicago ? best identify a bank that is focused on underserved populations and that also fits his interest in social and financial performance criteria? How can a bank chief executive officer understand how her bank compares to peers in terms of social performance? How can regulators and public policymakers identify high-impact institutions that serve as anchors in underserved communities?
Profitwise , Issue 1 , Pages 10-15

Journal Article
Two Multibanks Help Medical Diagnostics Firm Take Off

The Texas Mezzanine Fund was established in 1999 as a statewide multibank community development corporation by Guaranty Federal Bank, Washington Mutual, Inc. and Jefferson Heritage Bank. The fund originates loans to fast-growing small businesses that don't qualify for traditional bank loans.
e-Perspectives , Volume 1 , Issue 1

Working Paper
Is a Friend in Need a Friend Indeed? How Relationship Borrowers Fare during the COVID-19 Crisis

We analyze loan contract terms, investigating whether relationship borrowers fare better or worse than others in times of need, using the COVID-19 crisis as a quasi-natural experiment. COVID-19 is superior to prior crises for such analysis because its public health and government restrictions shocks directly harm borrowers, rather than banks. Our dataset includes Y-14Q, covering syndicated and non syndicated loans and small and large firms, unlike some other datasets. We find the dark side of relationships dominates across four relationship measures, 14 COVID-19 shocks, and PPP participation. ...
Working Papers , Paper 21-13

Working Paper
A Quantitative Theory of Relationship Lending

Banks' loan pricing decisions reflect the fact that borrowers tend to have long-lasting relationships with lenders. Therefore, pricing decisions have an inherently dynamic component: high interest rates may yield higher static profits per loan, but in the long run they erode a banks' customer base and reduce future profitability. We study this tradeoff using a dynamic banking model which embeds lending relationships using deep habits (“customer capital”) and costs of adjusting loan portfolio composition. High customer capital raises the level and decreases the interest rate elasticity of ...
Working Papers , Paper 2022-033

Discussion Paper
Low Interest Rates and Bank Profits

The Fed’s December 2015 decision to raise interest rates after an unprecedented seven-year stasis offers a chance to assess the link between interest rates and bank profitability. A key determinant of a bank’s profitability is its net interest margin (NIM)—the gap between an institution’s interest income and interest expense, typically normalized by the average size of its interest-earning assets. The aggregate NIM for the largest U.S. banks reached historic lows in the fourth quarter of 2015, coinciding with the “low for long” interest rate environment in place since the ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20170621

A Return to Operating with Abundant Reserves

Remarks before the Money Marketeers of New York University (delivered via videoconference).

Discussion Paper
The Nonbank Shadow of Banks

Financial and technological innovation and changes in the macroeconomic environment have led to the growth of nonbank financial institutions (NBFIs), and to the possible displacement of banks in the provision of traditional financial intermediation services (deposit taking, loan making, and facilitation of payments). In this post, we look at the joint evolution of banks—referred to as depository institutions from here on—and nonbanks inside the organizational structure of bank holding companies (BHCs). Using a unique database of the organizational structure of all BHCs ever in existence ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20231127

Working Paper
Banking on the Boom, Tripped by the Bust: Banks and the World War I Agricultural Price Shock

How do banks respond to asset booms? This paper examines i) how U.S. banks responded to the World War I farmland boom; ii) the impact of regulation; and iii) how bank closures exacerbated the post-war bust. The boom encouraged new bank formation and balance sheet expansion (especially by new banks). Deposit insurance amplified the impact of rising crop prices on bank portfolios, while higher minimum capital requirements dampened the effects. Banks that responded most aggressively to the asset boom had a higher probability of closing in the bust, and counties with more bank closures ...
Working Papers , Paper 2017-36

Discussion Paper
Leverage Ratio Arbitrage All Over Again

Leverage limits as a form of capital regulation have a well-known, potential bug: If banks can’t lever returns as desired, they can boost returns on equity by shifting toward riskier, higher yielding assets. That reach for yield is the leverage rule “arbitrage.” But would banks do that? In a previous post, we discussed evidence from our working paper that banks did do just that in response to the new leverage rule that took effect in 2018. This post discusses new findings in our revised paper on when and how banks arbitraged.
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20200630

Remarks at the New Jersey Bankers Association Regional Meeting

Remarks at the New Jersey Bankers Association Regional Meeting, Woodbridge, New Jersey.


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Plosser, Matthew 7 items

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Morgan, Donald P. 6 items

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Eisenbach, Thomas M. 4 items

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