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Keywords:banks 

Discussion Paper
Banking Deserts, Branch Closings, and Soft Information

U.S. banks have shuttered nearly 5,000 branches since the financial crisis, raising concerns that more low-income and minority neighborhoods may be devolving into ?banking deserts? with inadequate, or no, mainstream financial services. We investigate this issue and also ask whether such neighborhoods are particularly exposed to branch closings?a development that, according to recent research, could reduce credit access, even with other branches present, by destroying ?soft? information about borrowers that influences lenders? credit decisions. Our findings are mixed, suggesting that further ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20160307

Discussion Paper
Are Banks Being Roiled by Oil?

Profits and employment in the oil and natural gas extraction industry have fallen significantly since 2014, reflecting a sustained decline in energy prices. In this post, we look at how these tremors are affecting banks that operate in energy industry?intensive regions of the United States. We find that banks in the ?oil patch? have experienced a significant rise in delinquencies on commercial and industrial loans. So far though, there appears to be limited evidence of spillovers to other types of loans and no evidence of widespread bank losses or failures in these regions.
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20161024

Report
Macroprudential policy and the revolving door of risk: lessons from leveraged lending guidance

We investigate the U.S. experience with macroprudential policies by studying the interagency guidance on leveraged lending. We find that the guidance primarily impacted large, closely supervised banks, but only after supervisors issued important clarifications. It also triggered a migration of leveraged lending to nonbanks. While we do not find that nonbanks had more lax lending policies than banks, we unveil important evidence that nonbanks increased bank borrowing following the issuance of guidance, possibly to finance their growing leveraged lending. The guidance was effective at reducing ...
Staff Reports , Paper 815

Report
Banks' payments-driven revenues

The amount of fee income earned by the banking sector suggests that the significance of payment services has been understated or overlooked. This paper attempts to develop a clearer picture of the importance of payment services to the industry by delineating the payments area broadly and by analyzing data disclosed in bank holding company annual reports on sources of noninterest income. ; We find that payment services bring in from one-third to two-fifths of the combined operating revenue of the twenty-five largest bank holding companies. This contribution to revenue is considerably larger ...
Staff Reports , Paper 62

Report
Federal Reserve tools for managing rates and reserves

The Federal Reserve announced in January 2019 that it would maintain an ample supply of reserves amid its balance sheet reduction. We model the impact of reserves on banks? liquidity and balance sheet costs. In competitive general equilibrium, the optimal supply of reserves equates bank deposit rates to the interest rate paid on excess reserves (IOER), consistent with ample reserves. Raising the Fed?s overnight reverse repo rate up to IOER would increase liquidity, expediently reduce the overabundance of reserves, and stabilize the volatility of overnight market rates. Empirical analysis ...
Staff Reports , Paper 642

Report
Bank heterogeneity and capital allocation: evidence from \\"fracking\\" shocks

This paper empirically investigates banks? ability to reallocate capital. I use unconventional energy development to identify unsolicited deposit inflows and then I estimate how banks allocate these deposits over the recent business cycle. To condition on credit demand, I compare banks? allocations within affected areas over time and in the cross section. When conditions deteriorate, liquid asset allocations increase and loan allocations decrease. Banks with fewer funding sources and higher capital ratios reduce loan allocations more than nearby peers. My results suggest that during adverse ...
Staff Reports , Paper 693

Discussion Paper
Resolving \\"Too Big to Fail\\"

Many market participants believe that large financial institutions enjoy an implicit guarantee that the government will step in to rescue them from potential failure. These ?Too Big to Fail? (TBTF) issues became particularly salient during the 2008 crisis. From the government?s perspective, rescuing these financial institutions can be important to avoid harm to the financial system. The bailouts also artificially lower the risk borne by investors and the financing costs of big banks. The Dodd-Frank Act attempts to remove the incentive for governments to bail out banks in the first place by ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20181002

Discussion Paper
Did Banks Subject to LCR Reduce Liquidity Creation?

Banks traditionally provide loans that are funded mostly by deposits and thereby create liquidity, which benefits the economy. However, since the loans are typically long-term and illiquid, whereas the deposits are short-term and liquid, this creation of liquidity entails risk for the bank because of the possibility that depositors may ?run? (that is, withdraw their deposits on short notice). To mitigate this risk, regulators implemented the liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) following the financial crisis of 2007-08, mandating banks to hold a buffer of liquid assets. A side effect ofthe ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20181015

Report
Bank Liquidity Creation, Systemic Risk, and Basel Liquidity Regulations

We find that banks subject to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR banks) create less liquidity per dollar of assets in the post-LCR period than non-LCR banks by, in part, lending less. However, we also find that LCR banks are more resilient as they contribute less to fire-sale risk, relative to non-LCR banks. We estimate the net after-tax benefits from reduced lending and fire-sale risk to be about 1.4 percent of assets in 2013:Q2-2014 for large banks. Our findings, which we show are unlikely to result from capital regulations, highlight the trade-off between lower liquidity creation and ...
Staff Reports , Paper 852

Report
Gates, fees, and preemptive runs

We build a model of a financial intermediary, in the tradition of Diamond and Dybvig (1983), and show that allowing the intermediary to impose redemption fees or gates in a crisis?a form of suspension of convertibility?can lead to preemptive runs. In our model, a fraction of investors (depositors) can become informed in advance about a shock to the return on the intermediary?s assets. Later, the informed investors learn the realization of the shock and choose their redemption behavior based on this information. We prove two results: First, there are situations in which informed investors ...
Staff Reports , Paper 670

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