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Keywords:Antidumping duties 

Working Paper
Trade deflection and trade depression
This is the first paper to empirically examine whether the United States' imposition of a special import restraint distorts foreign exports and thus affects world trade flows. We first develop a theoretical model of worldwide trade in which the imposition of a special import restraint by one country - an antidumping duty or a safeguard measure - causes significant distortions in world trade flows. We then empirically test this model by investigating the effect of US special import restraints on Japanese exports of roughly 3500 commodities into 29 countries between 1992 and 2001. Our estimation of a fixed-effects model of Japanese exports yields evidence that US import restraints both deflect and depress Japanese export flows. Imposition of a US antidumping duty against Japan deflects trade: export growth to non-US trading partners rises by 11 to 22 percentage points. The simultaneous imposition of a US antidumping duty against both Japan and a third country depresses trade: Japanese export growth to the third country falls by 0 to 18 percentage points. The magnitude of the trade depression effect is also larger when the US imposes an antidumping duty against a third country but not against Japan. A US safeguard measure leads Japanese export growth to third countries to rise 12 to 15 percentage points.
AUTHORS: Crowley, Meredith A.; Bown, Chad P.
DATE: 2003

Working Paper
Import protection, business cycles, and exchange rates: evidence from the Great Recession
This paper uses highly detailed, quarterly data for five major industrialized economies to estimate the impact of> macroeconomic fluctuations on import protection policies over 1988:Q1?2010:Q4. First, estimates on a pre-Great Recession sample of data provide evidence of two key relationships. We confirm that appreciations in bilateral real exchange rates lead to substantial increases in antidumping and related forms of import protection: e.g., a 4 percent appreciation results in 60?90 percent more products being subject to import protection. We also provide evidence of a previously overlooked result that policy-imposing countries historically imposed such bilateral import restrictions on trading partners that were going through periods of weak economic growth.> Second, we use the model to then provide the first estimates that link macroeconomic fluctuations to a change in policy-imposing behavior during the Great Recession so as to explain the realized protectionist response. During the Great Recession, the U.S. and other policy-imposing economies became less responsive to exchange rate appreciations. Furthermore, the U.S. and other economies ?switched? from their historical behavior and shifted implementing new import protection away from those trading partners that were contracting and toward those experiencing economic growth. In a final exercise, we document how the model?s estimates imply that a 9?20 percent appreciation of China's real exchange rate vis--vis the U.S. dollar during the sample period would allow for China?s exporters to have received the "average" import protection treatment under antidumping that the U.S. imposed against other countries.
AUTHORS: Bown, Chad P.; Crowley, Meredith A.
DATE: 2011

Working Paper
Policy externalities: how U.S. antidumping affects Japanese exports to the EU
This paper investigates the international externalities associated with US use of antidumping (AD) measures by examining the relationship between US AD duties (ADDs) and Japanese exports to the US and EU over the 1992-2001 period. We first examine the trade destruction and trade diversion associated with Japanese exports to the US market resulting from US AD duties. We then investigate whether US ADDs impose externalities on a non- targeted third country by examining the effect of these US policies on Japanese exports to the EU. We document sizable trade deflection and trade depression in the EU market resulting from US ADDs. Model estimates indicate that, on average, roughly one quarter to one third of the value of Japanese exports to the US thought to be destroyed by a US ADD is actually deflected to the EU in the form of a contemporaneous increase in exports. Finally, we present evidence that US ADDs impose terms-of-trade externalities on non-targeted markets. We find that US duties on Japanese exports are associated with substantially lower Japanese export prices in the EU market.
AUTHORS: Crowley, Meredith A.; Bown, Chad P.
DATE: 2004

Working Paper
Antidumping policy under imperfect competition
As average tariff rates have fallen, countries have increasingly turned to GATT-sanctioned ``special protection'' - especially antidumping duties - to restrict imports when import volumes increase suddenly. In this paper, I analyze a model of dumping among imperfectly competitive firms that face stochastic demand. I show that an antidumping duty can improve an importing-country's welfare when it faces dumping caused by weak foreign demand. Interestingly, the antidumping duty does not completely stem the tide of dumped imports, but it improves welfare through shifting some of the dumping firm's rents to the home country. Even when faced with an antidumping duty, a foreign firm that serves more than one market will prefer dumping and paying an antidumping duty over negotiating a voluntary export restraint because dumping allows it to earn higher revenues in its own market.
AUTHORS: Crowley, Meredith A.
DATE: 2001

Working Paper
Cyclical dumping and U.S. antidumping protection: 1980-2001
In this paper, I test the theory that weak economic conditions in a foreign economy cause cyclical dumping, i.e., the temporary sale of products in a trading partner's economy at a price below average total cost. Although I am unable to observe prices or costs directly, a novel identification strategy allows me to uncover evidence of cyclical dumping. Using country- specific information on foreign economic shocks in manufacturing industries, filing decisions by the US industry, and antidumping decisions by the US government, I am able to identify strong evidence of cyclical dumping. After controlling for other factors that likely drive industry filing and government decisions, I find that a one standard deviation fall in the growth of employment in a foreign economy's manufacturing industry quadruples the joint probability that the US industry will file an antidumping petition and the US government will impose a preliminary (temporary) antidumping measure. Further, a one standard deviation fall in foreign employment growth more than doubles the joint probability that a petition will be filed and a final (long-lasting) antidumping measure will be imposed.
AUTHORS: Crowley, Meredith A.
DATE: 2007

Working Paper
Do safeguard tariffs and antidumping duties open or close technology gaps?
This paper examines how the country-breadth of tariff protection can affect the technology adoption decisions of both domestic import-competing and foreign exporting firms. The analysis is novel in that shows how firm-level technology adoption changes under tariffs of different country-breadth. I show that a country-specific tariff like an antidumping duty induces both domestic import-competing firms and foreign exporting firms to adopt a new technology earlier than they would under free trade. In contrast, a broadly-applied tariff like a safeguard can accelerate technology adoption by a domestic import-competing firm, but will slow-down technology adoption by foreign exporting firms. Because safeguard tariffs can delay the foreign firm's adoption of new technology, the worldwide welfare costs associated with using them may be larger than is generally believed.
AUTHORS: Crowley, Meredith A.
DATE: 2002

Newsletter
The worldwide spread of antidumping protection
AUTHORS: Crowley, Meredith A.
DATE: 2004-01

Working Paper
Self-enforcing trade agreements: evidence from antidumping policy
This paper empirically examines how governments make trade policy adjustments under a self-enforcing trade agreement in the presence of economic shocks. Using data on US antidumping (AD) policy formation between 1997-2006, we find that US antidumping policy is often consistent with the time-varying ?cooperative? tariff increases modeled in the self-enforcing trade agreement of Bagwell and Staiger (1990). Estimates of an empirical model of US antidumping indicate that the likelihood of a US antidumping duty is increasing in the size of the unexpected import surge, decreasing in the volatility of imports and decreasing in the elasticities of import demand and export supply. This suggests that time-varying increases in US tariff rates under antidumping policy could be interpreted as ?cooperative? tariff increases that support a self-enforcing trade agreement facing an unexpected import surge.
AUTHORS: Bown, Chad P.; Crowley, Meredith A.
DATE: 2009

Report
The fruits of free trade
AUTHORS: Cox, W. Michael; Alm, Richard
DATE: 2002

Working Paper
Are antidumping duties for sale? case-level evidence on the Grossman-Helpman protection for sale model
As successive rounds of global trade liberalization have lowered broad industry-level tariffs, antidumping duties have emerged as a WTO-consistent means of protecting certain industries. Using the Grossman-Helpman (GH) "Protection for Sale" model, we examine the extent to which political contributions affect the outcomes of decisions in antidumping cases. We find that antidumping duty rates tend to be higher for politically-active petitioners. The relationship between the import penetration ratio and duties imposed depends on whether or not petitioners in a case are politically active. Consistent with the predictions of the GH model, antidumping duties are positively correlated with the import penetration ratio for politically inactive petitioners, but negatively correlated for politically active petitioners. Thus, our paper supports the predictions of the Grossman-Helpman model using a fresh set of data that allows us to avoid some of the compromises made in previous empirical work.
AUTHORS: Evans, Carolyn L.; Sherlund, Shane M.
DATE: 2006

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