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Reserve Balances, the Federal Funds Market and Arbitrage in the New Regulatory Framework
We study developments in reserve balances and the federal funds market in the context of two banking regulatory changes: the widening of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) assessment base and the introduction of the Basel III leverage ratio. Using a novel data set that includes FDIC fees and balance sheet data for depository institutions, we find that, as most foreign banks were not subject to the FDIC fee, they absorbed increasing amounts of reserve balances. Furthermore, foreign banks experienced positive and improving conditions for arbitraging between borrowing reserve balances in the federal funds market and earning interest on excess reserves by holding those reserves at the Federal Reserve Banks, contributing to an increase in federal funds borrowing by foreign banks relative to domestic banks. However, the implementation of the Basel III leverage ratio was associated with temporary declines in foreign bank federal funds borrowing at reporting dates.
AUTHORS: Banegas, Ayelen; Tase, Manjola
Sectoral allocation, risk efficiency and the Great Moderation
This paper argues that the decline in U.S. real GDP growth volatility after the mid 1980s was an outcome of more risk efficient and more diversified sectoral allocations. Using a portfolio approach, I distinguish between the two determinants of GDP growth volatility: sectoral covariances and sectoral allocations. I use the sectoral growth and covariances to compute the growth-volatility frontier of the economy. I define the efficiency of the actual sectoral allocation as the distance of the economy from the frontier, measured in the (volatility, growth) space. There are three main findings. 1) The frontier has shifted due to a lower sectoral growth rate and a higher sectoral variance. 2) The distance of the economy from the frontier has decreased. The efficiency over the period increased by 1.4 percentage points. This increase occurred along the volatility dimension and it is interpreted as the decline in the growth volatility in the economy, if there were no changes in the sectoral covariances. This efficiency improvement is comparable to the 1.5 percentage points decline in GDP growth volatility in the data after the mid 1980s. 3) The U.S. economy became more diversified across sectors after the early 1980s, shifting away from manufacturing and agriculture towards services. The increase in the share of Finance and Insurance coupled with the doubling of the growth volatility in this sector, might have contributed to the recent increase in GDP growth volatility.
AUTHORS: Tase, Manjola
Sectoral Dynamics and Business Cycles
I construct an index of sectoral dynamics to characterize changes in the sectoral composition of economic activity. There is evidence of asymmetry in different phases of business cycles with recessions being associated with larger changes in sectoral composition than expansions. I find that the correlation between dynamics in sectoral employment and aggregate output has weakened since the 1990s. Also, sectoral changes appear to be smaller and spread across more sectors, while their contribution to aggregate volatility has been increasing. I also perform a simulation exercise and replicate these documented facts. The results suggest that shifts in the sectoral composition of the economy likely contribute to the formation of business cycles. Also the duration of recessions implied by the impulse response functions from a VAR model of sectoral dynamics and aggregate output growth matches the duration of recessions observed in the data.
AUTHORS: Tase, Manjola