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Author:Schreft, Stacey L. 

Working Paper
Private money, settlement, and discount : a comment

Temzelides and Williamson present a model of private currency issuance to study the effect of clearing arrangements on the prices at which private currencies trade, on the volume of exchange, and on welfare. Their findings hinge on three factors: the location of the issuers relative to the area in which their currencies circulate, whether there is an arrangement for clearing nonlocally issued currencies, and whether agents are fully informed about the quality of the currencies. This paper finds that the Temzelides-Williamson model provides valuable insights about historical experiences with ...
Research Working Paper , Paper RWP 00-01

Journal Article
Small business: The big picture of small business owners

Cross Sections , Volume 11 , Issue Win , Pages 26

Conference Paper
Financial fragility with rational and irrational exuberance

Proceedings

Working Paper
The conduct of monetary policy with a shrinking stock of government debt

In many countries, government-budget surpluses have led to a decline in the amount of federal government debt outstanding. This paper considers the consequences of this development for a central bank that conducts monetary policy through open market operations in treasury debt. A model is presented in which a treasury taxes, spends, and issues debt; a central bank conducts monetary policy through open market operations; and banks are intermediaries for all private savings. The model suggests potentially severe consequences from a shrinking stock of government debt in the absence of a change ...
Research Working Paper , Paper RWP 01-09

Working Paper
How and why do consumers choose their payment methods?

This essay provides an overview of the literature on consumer payment behavior. It considers the state of our understanding of how and why consumers choose their payment methods and what is needed to make more headway in understanding consumer payment decisions. It closes by discussing the policy issues that require that we make progress with payments research.
Research Working Paper , Paper RWP 06-04

Working Paper
The evolution of cash transactions : some implications for monetary policy

This paper considers the implications for monetary policy of a decreasing demand for outside money. It finds that even perpetual declines in the demand for base money pose no threat to the traditional methods employed for conducting monetary policy. The effects of such reductions in the demand for central bank liabilities, however, do depend on how monetary policy is conducted. Four monetary policy regimes are analyzed. With a policy of nominal-interest-rate targeting, a secular decline in the volume of cash transactions unambiguously leads to accelerating inflation. A policy of maintaining a ...
Research Working Paper , Paper 99-02

Working Paper
The evolution of cash transactions: some implications for monetary policy

This paper considers the implications of a decreasing demand for cash transactions under several monetary policy regimes. A policy of nominal-interest-rate targeting implies that a secular decline in the volume of cash transactions unambiguously leads to accelerating inflation. A policy of maintaining a fixed composition of government liabilities leads to accelerating (decelerating) inflation if agents have sufficiently high (low) levels of risk aversion. A policy of inflation targeting produces falling nominal and real interest rates, while a policy of fixing the rate of money growth can ...
Financial Services working paper , Paper 97-04

Working Paper
Welfare-improving credit controls

Credit controls are generally believed to result in an inefficient allocation of resources. This paper presents a counterexample. It displays a general equilibrium, multi-good model with spatial separation for which steady state equilibria exist in which both cash (i.e. fiat currency) and trade credit are used in exchange. Transaction costs, restrictions on the timing of trade, and a positive nominal interest rate cause the laissez-faire equilibrium to be non-optimal. A quantitative restriction on the use of trade credit can yield a Pareto superior allocation.
Working Paper , Paper 91-01

Working Paper
Financial fragility with rational and irrational exuberance

This article formalizes investor rationality and irrationality, exuberance and apprehension, to consider the implications of belief formation for the fragility of an economy's financial structure. The model presented generates a financial structure with portfolio linkages that make it susceptible to contagious financial crises, despite the absence of coordination failures. Investors forecast the likelihood of loss from contagion and may shift preemptively to safer portfolios, breaking portfolio linkages in the process. The entire financial structure collapses when the last group of investors ...
Research Working Paper , Paper 99-01

Working Paper
Identifying credit crunches

This article emphasizes the role of nonprice rationing in credit crunches. It proposes a process for identifying credit crunches centered on the political economy of the period under study. The process is applied to the U.S. for the 1960-92 period, and a variable is constructed that indicates when credit crunches occurred. In addition, the article questions the conventional wisdom that Regulation Q was the primary cause of the 1960s credit crunches.
Working Paper , Paper 93-02

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