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Author:Gulati, Chaitri 

Journal Article
A Slowdown in Job Vacancies Is Likely to Coincide with Higher Unemployment and Slower Wage Growth

Recently, some market observers have proposed that job vacancies could decline, and ease wage growth, without a commensurate increase in the unemployment rate. However, we find that the typical relationship of declining job vacancies and higher unemployment holds even at exceptionally low levels of the unemployment rate. A notable decline in job postings will likely coincide with an easing of tightness in the labor market, a higher unemployment rate, and slowing wage growth.
Economic Bulletin , Issue August 10, 2022 , Pages 4

Journal Article
Fiscal Relief during the COVID-19 Pandemic

In response to the sharp economic downturn during the COVID-19 pandemic, Congress passed unprecedented policy relief measures to support households, businesses, and the broader economy. Compared with previous fiscal stimulus responses, these relief programs have been unmatched in size and scope, speed of response, and novelty of design.Huixin Bi and Chaitri Gulati review recent empirical research on three fiscal relief programs—stimulus checks, augmented unemployment insurance (UI) benefits, and the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP)—to understand their effects on the broader economy as ...
Economic Review , Volume 106 , Issue no.2 , Pages 5-24

Journal Article
Understanding the Recent Rise in Municipal Bond Yields

In late March, investors sold off municipal bonds at a rapid pace, depressing municipal bond prices and driving up their yields relative to U.S. Treasuries. We find that this initial investor run on the municipal bond market was likely due to increased liquidity demand rather than credit concerns, making the Federal Reserve’s early actions to relieve liquidity stress effective. Going forward, however, municipal bond prices will likely reflect increased credit concerns.
Economic Bulletin , Issue May 27, 2020 , Pages 4

Journal Article
Understanding State and Local Government Spending over the Business Cycle

State and local (S&L) government spending is essential for providing public services and infrastructure and accounts for more than 10 percent of GDP. How this sector responds during a recession can play an important role in shaping the overall economic recovery.Huixin Bi, Chaitri Gulati, and Nora Traum document how S&L government expenditures have evolved over the business cycle since the 1950s. They find that from 1950 to the mid-1980s, S&L spending followed no uniform pattern after recessions: spending was sometimes procyclical (declining during recessions) and sometimes countercyclical ...
Economic Review , Volume vol. 108 , Issue no. 3 , Pages 15

Journal Article
When Normalizing Monetary Policy, the Order of Operations Matters

As economic conditions in the United States continue to improve, the FOMC may consider normalizing monetary policy. Whether the FOMC reduces the balance sheet before raising the federal funds rate (or vice versa) may affect the shape of the yield curve, with consequences for financial institutions. Drawing lessons from the previous normalization in 2015–19, we conclude that normalizing the balance sheet before raising the funds rate might forestall yield curve inversion and, in turn, support economic stability.
Economic Bulletin , Issue October 14, 2021 , Pages 4

Journal Article
The Evolving Role of the Fed’s Balance Sheet: Effects and Challenges

In this article, Chaitri Gulati and A. Lee Smith present evidence that the Federal Reserve’s expanded balance sheet, with a large portfolio of long-duration assets, has provided a significant amount of policy accommodation in recent years, depressing long-term interest rates by about 1.6 percentage points as of early 2022. They also argue that the FOMC’s plan to remove this accommodation through the passive runoff of maturing securities may prove challenging. They project that the downward pressure the balance sheet is currently placing on longer-term interest rates will only gradually ...
Economic Review , Volume 107 , Issue no.4

Journal Article
FOMC Communication Spillovers: Is There a "Call-Out" Effect?

Foreign asset prices may react to FOMC communication that references specific countries, but the effects are minimal.
Economic Review , Volume vol.108 , Issue no.1 , Pages 15



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