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Author:Engstrom, Eric 

Conference Paper
Inflation and the stock market: Understanding the “Fed Model”

The so-called Fed model postulates that the dividend or earnings yield on stocks should equal the yield on nominal Treasury bonds, or at least that the two should be highly correlated. In US data there is indeed a strikingly high time series correlation between the yield on nominal bonds and the dividend yield on equities. This positive correlation is often attributed to the fact that both bond and equity yields comove strongly and positively with expected inflation. While inflation comoves with nominal bond yields for well-known reasons, the positive correlation between expected inflation ...
Proceedings , Issue Jan

Working Paper
Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply Effects of COVID-19: A Real-time Analysis

We extract aggregate demand and supply shocks for the US economy from real-time survey data on inflation and real GDP growth using a novel identification scheme. Our approach exploits non-Gaussian features of macroeconomic forecast revisions and imposes minimal theoretical assumptions. After verifying that our results for U.S. post-World War II business cycle fluctuations are largely in line with the prevailing consensus, we proceed to study output and price fluctuations during the COVID-19 pandemic. We attribute two thirds of the decline in 2020:Q1 GDP to a negative shock to aggregate ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2020-049

Working Paper
The Near-Term Forward Yield Spread as a Leading Indicator : A Less Distorted Mirror

The spread between the yield on a 10-year Treasury bond and the yield on a shorter maturity bond, such as a 2-year Treasury, is commonly used as an indicator for predicting U.S. recessions. We show that such ?long-term spreads? are statistically dominated in recession prediction models by an economically more intuitive alternative, a ""near-term forward spread."" This latter spread can be interpreted as a measure of the market's expectations for the near-term trajectory of conventional monetary policy rates. The predictive power of our near-term forward spread indicates that, when market ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2018-055

Working Paper
Risk, uncertainty, and asset prices

We identify the relative importance of changes in the conditional variance of fundamentals (which we call "uncertainty") and changes in risk aversion ("risk" for short) in the determination of the term structure, equity prices, and risk premiums. Theoretically, we introduce persistent time-varying uncertainty about the fundamentals in an external habit model. The model matches the dynamics of dividend and consumption growth, including their volatility dynamics and many salient asset market phenomena. While the variation in dividend yields and the equity risk premium is primarily driven by ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2005-40

Working Paper
Asset Return Dynamics under Habits and Bad-Environment Good-Environment Fundamentals

We introduce a "bad environment-good environment" (BEGE) technology for consumption growth in a consumption-based asset pricing model with external habit formation. The model generates realistic non-Gaussian features of consumption growth and fits standard salient features of asset prices including the means and volatilities of equity returns and a low risk free rate. BEGE dynamics additionally allow the model to generate realistic properties of equity index options prices, and their comovements with the macroeconomic outlook. In particular, when option implied volatility is high, as measured ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2015-53

Working Paper
Macro Risks and the Term Structure of Interest Rates

We use non-Gaussian features in U.S. macroeconomic data to identify aggregate supply and demand shocks while imposing minimal economic assumptions. Recessions in the 1970s and 1980s were driven primarily by supply shocks, later recessions were driven primarily by demand shocks, and the Great Recession exhibited large negative shocks to both demand and supply. We estimate "macro risk factors" that drive "bad" (negatively skewed) and "good" (positively skewed) variation for supply and demand shocks. The Great Moderation is mostly accounted for by a reduction in good variance. In contrast, bad ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2017-058

Discussion Paper
Has the Inflation Risk Premium Fallen? Is it Now Negative?

In this note, we examine the theoretical determinants of one important component of inflation compensation, the inflation risk premium, and argue that a secular decline in the inflation risk premium may be responsible for a substantial portion of the decline in inflation compensation in recent years.
FEDS Notes , Paper 2016-04-04

Discussion Paper
(Don't Fear) The Yield Curve

In this note, we show that, for predicting recessions, such measures of a "long-term spread"--the spread in yields between a far-off maturity such as 10 years and a shorter maturity such as 1 or 2 years--are statistically dominated by a more economically intuitive alternative, a "near-term forward spread."
FEDS Notes , Paper 2018-06-28

Discussion Paper
Forecasting Stock Market Crashes is Hard--Especially Future Ones : Can Option Prices Help?

Stock market gyrations are notoriously hard to predict, and not for lack of effort by legions of investors, market commentators and academics. In this article, we investigate whether efforts to forecast stock market crashes, in particular, can be aided by using information embedded in options prices.
FEDS Notes , Paper 2014-05-07


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