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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Series:Working Papers 

Working Paper
Duration dependence in monetary policy: international evidence

We study the duration of monetary regimes in a simple neo-classical Phillips curve model. The model is an extension of Owyang (2001) and Owyang and Ramey (2001). In this paper, we consider the role of the duration of inflationary regimes on the average inflation rate in an international cross-section. We find that inflationary regimes in certain countries are duration dependent but anti-inflationary regimes are not. In addition, we find that countries with high central banker turnover switch from inflationary to anti-inflationary with lower probability.
Working Papers , Paper 2002-021

Working Paper
Reconsidering the Fed’s Forecasting Advantage

Previous studies show the Fed has a forecast advantage over the private sector, either because it devotes more resources to forecasting or because it has an informational advantage in knowing the path of future monetary policy. We evaluate the Fed’s forecast advantage to determine how much of it results from the Fed’s knowledge of the conditioning path. We develop two tests—an instrumental variable encompassing test and a path-dependent encompassing test—to equalize the Fed’s information set with the private sector’s. We find that, generally, the Fed does not encompass the private ...
Working Papers , Paper 2022-001

Working Paper
Modeling Volcker as a non-absorbing state: agnostic identification of a Markov-switching VAR

Recently, models of monetary policy have been constructed to include structural breaks to account for changes in policymaker preferences or operating procedures. These models typically assume that when changes occur, they happen once and for all. In this paper, we allow the policymaker and the economy to switch freely between regimes. We find that not only does the nature and effect of innovations to monetary policy change, but switching the policy rule and the economy's subsequent response can in and of itself alter the path of the economy. We find the switch itself can generate ...
Working Papers , Paper 2002-018

Working Paper
Structural breaks and regional disparities in the transmission of monetary policy

Using a regional VAR, we find large differences in the effects of monetary policy shocks across regions of the United States. We also find that the region-level effects of monetary policy differ a great deal between the pre-Volcker and Volcker-Greenspan periods in terms of their depth and length. The two sample periods also yield very different rankings of the regions in terms of the effects of monetary policy. Our regional VAR also suggests that aggregate VARs that ignore regional variations can suffer from severe aggregation bias. We use the results of our regional VAR to find evidence that ...
Working Papers , Paper 2003-008

Working Paper
A spectral analysis of the cross-country consumption correlation puzzle

Dynamic general equilibrium models predict high cross-country consumption correlations, whereas the data show that output correlations tend to be higher. Spectral decomposition reveals that this ranking varies across frequency bands, with consumption correlations often exceeding output correlations at higher frequencies.
Working Papers , Paper 2003-023

Working Paper
What tames the Celtic tiger? portfolio implications from a multivariate Markov switching model

We use multivariate regime switching vector autoregressive models to characterize the time-varying linkages among the Irish stock market, one of the top world performers of the 1990s, and the US and UK stock markets. We find that two regimes, characterized as bear and bull states, are required to characterize the dynamics of excess equity returns both at the univariate and multivariate level. This implies that the regimes driving the small open economy stock market are largely synchronous with those typical of the major markets. However, despite the existence of a persistent bull state in ...
Working Papers , Paper 2006-029

Working Paper
Multibank holding company acquisitions and local market structure: an analysis of pooled cross-section and time-series data

Working Papers , Paper 1981-010

Working Paper
Labor Market Responses to Unemployment Insurance: The Role of Heterogeneity

We document considerable scope of heterogeneity within the unemployed, especially when the unemployed are divided along eligibility and receipt of unemployment insurance (UI). We study the implications of this heterogeneity on UI’s insurance-incentive trade-off using a heterogeneous-agent job-search model capable of matching the wealth and income differences that distinguish UI recipients from non-recipients. Insurance benefits are larger for UI recipients who are predominantly wealth-poor. Meanwhile, incentive costs are nonmonotonic in wealth because the poorest individuals, who value ...
Working Papers , Paper 2019-022

Working Paper
Estimation of Markov regime-switching regression models with endogenous switching

Following Hamilton (1989), estimation of Markov regime-switching regressions nearly always relies on the assumption that the latent state variable controlling the regime change is exogenous. We incorporate endogenous switching into a Markov-switching regression and develop strategies for identification and estimation. Identification requires instruments, which can be found in observed exogenous variables that influence the transition probabilities of the regime-switching process, as in the so-called time-varying transition probability case. However, even with fixed transition probabilities, ...
Working Papers , Paper 2003-015

Working Paper
Self-Fulfilling Credit Cycles

In U.S. data 1981?2012, unsecured firm credit moves procyclically and tends to lead GDP, while secured firm credit is acyclical; similarly, shocks to unsecured firm credit explain a far larger fraction of output fluctuations than shocks to secured credit. In this paper we develop a tractable dynamic general equilibrium model in which unsecured firm credit arises from self-enforcing borrowing constraints, preventing an efficient capital allocation among heterogeneous firms. Unsecured credit rests on the value that borrowers attach to a good credit reputation which is a forward-looking ...
Working Papers , Paper 2015-5

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