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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Series:Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers 

Working Paper
Consumer-finance myths and other obstacles to financial literacy

The consumer-finance market for middle and upper-income households in the United States is characterized by a wide range of choices, both in terms of financial-services providers and the specific products and services available.1 Prices generally are determined in competitive markets. Consumer-protection regulation is extensive. Why then is there so much dissatisfaction with the U.S. consumer-finance market, even for prime-quality customers? ; This paper focuses not on inadequate choices, inadequate competition or regulation, but on the difficulty many middle and upper-income households ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2005-03

Working Paper
Economies of integration in banking: an application of the survivor principle

Despite the growing concentration of U.S. banking assets in mega-banks, most academic research finds that scale and scope economies are small. I apply the survivor principle to the banking industry between 1984 and 2002 and find that the so-called economies of integration are significant. These results hold after accounting for off-balance- sheet activities and after replicating the results at the holding company level. Regression analysis reveals that deregulation of branching restrictions, especially at the state level, played a significant role in allowing banks to exploit these economies. ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2004-04

Working Paper
What does the Federal Reserve’s economic value model tell us about interest rate risk at U.S. community banks?

The savings and loan crisis of the 1980s revealed the vulnerability of some depository institutions to changes in interest rates. Since that episode, U.S. bank supervisors have placed more emphasis on monitoring the interest rate risk of commercial banks. One outcome developed by economists at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors was a duration-based Economic Value Model (EVM) designed to estimate the interest rate sensitivity of banks. ; We test whether measures derived from the Fed?s EVM are correlated with the interest rate sensitivity of U.S. community banks. The answer to this question ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2003-01

Working Paper
A unified analysis of executive pay: the case of the banking industry

This study examines executive compensation determinants in the U.S. banking industry. Multiple theories of executive pay are discussed and tested using a relatively homogenous sample. We perform an in-depth look at the corporate governance and ownership structure of the companies selected. We explore the simultaneous relationship between compensation, firm performance, and board strength, exploiting variables unique to the banking industry. Our primary finding is that after controlling for both regulatory oversight and external market discipline, a strong board is associated with higher firm ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2004-02

Working Paper
Can feedback from the jumbo-CD market improve off-site surveillance of community banks?

We examine the value of feedback from the jumbo-certificate-of-deposit (CD) market in the off-site surveillance of community banks. Using accounting data, we construct proxies for default premiums on jumbo CDs. Then, we produce rank orderings of community banks -- defined as institutions holding less than $500 million in assets (constant 1999 dollars) -- based on these proxies. Next, we use an econometric surveillance model to generate rank orderings based on the probability of encountering financial distress. Finally, we compare these rank orderings as tools for flagging emerging problems. ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2002-08

Working Paper
Scale economies and geographic diversification as forces driving community bank mergers

Mergers of community banks across economic market areas potentially reduce both idiosyncratic and local market risk. Idiosyncratic risk may be reduced because the larger post merger bank has a larger customer base. Negative credit and liquidity shocks from individual customers would have smaller effects on the portfolio of the merged entity than on the individual community banks involved in the merger. Geographic dispersion of banking activities across economic market areas may reduce local market risk because an adverse economic development that is unique to one market area will not affect a ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2002-02

Working Paper
The British tripartite financial supervision system in the face of the Northern Rock run

The Northern Rock debacle - Britain's first bank run in 141 years - was the Tripartite regulatory system's first live ammunition test since its establishment in 1997. The aftermath of the crisis lists the destruction of Britain's fifth largest mortgage lender, the tarnishing of the Bank of England's well-established reputation, and the loss of confidence in the reformed regulatory system - a system that had been considered a paragon by policymakers and reformers around the world. As market observers, politicians, investors and bankers criticize not only the mortgage lender for its extreme ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2008-01

Working Paper
Did FDICIA enhance market discipline on community banks? a look at evidence from the jumbo-CD market

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (FDICIA) directed the FDIC to resolve bank failures in the least costly manner, shifting more of the failure-resolution burden to jumbo-CD holders. We examine the sensitivity of jumbo-CD yields and runoffs to failure risk before and after FDICIA. We also examine the economic significance of estimated risk sensitivities before and after the Act, looking at the implied impact of risk on bank funding costs and profits. The evidence indicates that yields and runoff were sensitive to risk before and after FDICIA, but that this ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2002-04

Working Paper
On the relevance of credit market structure to monetary policy

Credit affects the economy via various channels: its price, collateral requirements and the extent of rationing. Would the intensity of monetary transmission be affected by the market structure of the credit industry? Using a spatial competition framework I demonstrate how credit market structure can affect the transmission of monetary policy changes into real activity via the volume of credit. The paper also points that monetary tightening may render lending unprofitable and consequently beget a credit crunch; the extent of credit market robustness to contractive monetary policy is shown to ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2007-03

Working Paper
Dividends, stock repurchases and signaling: evidence from U.S. panel data

This paper exploits yearly accounting data from 1977 to 1994 to test the relative signaling power of dividends and net stock repurchases. The specification controls for potential agency cost and asset dissipation effects. Specifically, we regress changes in future income before extraordinary items on changes in dividends, changes in net stock repurchases, and a host of control variables. We also split the sample at 1981 to measure the impact of changes in the relative taxation of distribution methods. For the full twenty-year sample, only dividend changes are correlated with changes in future ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 1998-01

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