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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Series:Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers 

Working Paper
Executive compensation at Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac

Corporate governance-and executive-compensation arrangements in particular-should be an important component of the agenda to reform the housing GSEs. The GSEs' safety-and-soundness regulator-who is essentially the debtholders' and taxpayers' representative-must be admitted to the GSEs' boardroom in a way that is atypical of an ordinary publicly held company. This intrusion into the board's oversight of executive-compensation plans is justified given the GSEs' public purposes and their large potential cost to taxpayers. Prudent public policy requires greater supervisory control over executive ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2004-06

Working Paper
Did FDICIA enhance market discipline on community banks? a look at evidence from the jumbo-CD market

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (FDICIA) directed the FDIC to resolve bank failures in the least costly manner, shifting more of the failure-resolution burden to jumbo-CD holders. We examine the sensitivity of jumbo-CD yields and runoffs to failure risk before and after FDICIA. We also examine the economic significance of estimated risk sensitivities before and after the Act, looking at the implied impact of risk on bank funding costs and profits. The evidence indicates that yields and runoff were sensitive to risk before and after FDICIA, but that this ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2002-04

Working Paper
Do jumbo-CD holders care about anything?

Uninsured deposits represent a theoretically appealing but relatively untested alternative to subordinated debt for incorporating market discipline into banking supervision. To make the deposit market a useful supervisory tool, it is necessary to know what types of risk are priced by depositors and in what proportions. Using a clustering technique to select from among a large set of potential regressors, as well as a carefully chosen set of control variables, we attempt to determine the types of risk that cause uninsured depositors to react in both the price and quantity dimensions. As a ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2002-05

Working Paper
Is the Federal Home Loan Bank system good for banks? a look at evidence on membership, advances and risk

Since the early 1990s, commercial banks have turned to Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLBank) advances to plug the gap between loan and deposit growth. Is this trend worrisome? On the one hand, advances implicitly encourage risk by insulating borrowers from market discipline. On the other, advances give borrowers greater flexibility to managing interest rate and liquidity risk. And access to FHLBank funding encourages members to reshape their balance sheets in ways that could lower credit risk. Using quarterly financial and supervisory data for banks from 1992 to 2000, we assess the effect of ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2005-02

Working Paper
Labor productivity and job-market flows: trends, cycles, and correlations

I derive measures of U.S. job-separation and job-matching rates from aggregate Current Population Survey data. Using an unrestricted unobserved-components approach, I decompose these series into trends and cycles and compare the results with the trend and cyclical behavior of labor-productivity growth. Both transitory and permanent shocks to productivity are strongly positively correlated with fluctuations in the rate of job matching and negatively correlated with cyclical fluctuations in separation rates. Productivity growth thereby accounts for about a third of the overall variation in the ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2005-04

Working Paper
Banks vs. credit unions: dynamic competition in local markets

One interesting aspect of the financial services industry is that for-profit institutions such as commercial banks compete directly with not-for-profit financial intermediaries such as credit unions. In this article, we analyze competition among banks and between banks and credit unions using a dynamic model of spatial competition. The model allows for the co-existence of (for-profit) banks and (not-for-profit) credit unions. Using annual county-level data on banking market concentration and credit-union participation rates for the period 1989-96, we find empirical evidence of two-way ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2002-10

Working Paper
Economies of integration in banking: an application of the survivor principle

Despite the growing concentration of U.S. banking assets in mega-banks, most academic research finds that scale and scope economies are small. I apply the survivor principle to the banking industry between 1984 and 2002 and find that the so-called economies of integration are significant. These results hold after accounting for off-balance- sheet activities and after replicating the results at the holding company level. Regression analysis reveals that deregulation of branching restrictions, especially at the state level, played a significant role in allowing banks to exploit these economies. ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2004-04

Working Paper
A unified analysis of executive pay: the case of the banking industry

This study examines executive compensation determinants in the U.S. banking industry. Multiple theories of executive pay are discussed and tested using a relatively homogenous sample. We perform an in-depth look at the corporate governance and ownership structure of the companies selected. We explore the simultaneous relationship between compensation, firm performance, and board strength, exploiting variables unique to the banking industry. Our primary finding is that after controlling for both regulatory oversight and external market discipline, a strong board is associated with higher firm ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2004-02

Working Paper
On the relevance of credit market structure to monetary policy

Credit affects the economy via various channels: its price, collateral requirements and the extent of rationing. Would the intensity of monetary transmission be affected by the market structure of the credit industry? Using a spatial competition framework I demonstrate how credit market structure can affect the transmission of monetary policy changes into real activity via the volume of credit. The paper also points that monetary tightening may render lending unprofitable and consequently beget a credit crunch; the extent of credit market robustness to contractive monetary policy is shown to ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2007-03

Working Paper
The impact of alternative bank monitoring policies on corporate investment and financing decisions

Much of the benefit from bank loans is generated by the specialized monitoring and information gathering role provided by financial institutions, including their role in facilitating the reorganization of firms experiencing financial distress. Despite these numerous benefits, it is somewhat surprising that aggregate trends suggest that the corporate sector has decreased its reliance on bank loans. We model the relationship between alternative bank monitoring policies and corporate investment and financing decisions. Rather than taking the monitoring characteristics of the bank as fixed, we ...
Supervisory Policy Analysis Working Papers , Paper 2002-09




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