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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis 

Working Paper
Terror Externalities and Trade: An Empirical Analysis
We report robust evidence of adverse cross-border externalities from terrorism on trade for over 160 countries from 1976 to 2014. Terrorism in one country spills over to reduce trade in neighboring nations. These externalities arise from higher trade costs due to trade delays and macroeconomic uncertainty.
AUTHORS: Bandyopadhyay, Subhayu; Doucouliagos, Hristos; Pham, Cong S.
DATE: 2019-05-29

Working Paper
On the frequency of large stock returns: putting booms and busts into perspective
Numerous articles have investigated the distribution of share prices, and find that the yields are leptokurtic. There is still controversy about the amount of leptokurtosis, and hence about the most appropriate distribution to use in modeling returns. This controversy has proven hard to resole, as the alternatives are non-nested. We propose to employ extreme value theory focusing exclusively on the larger observations, in order to assess the leptokurtosis within a unified framework. This enables one to generate robust probabilities on large changes, which put the recent stock market swings into historical perspective.
AUTHORS: Jansen, Dennis W.; Casper de Vries
DATE: 1988

Working Paper
Neighborhood income inequality
This paper offers a descriptive empirical analysis of the geographic pattern of income inequality within a sample of 359 US metropolitan areas between 1980 and 2000. Specifically, we decompose the variance of metropolitan area-level household income into two parts: one associated with the degree of variation among household incomes within neighborhoods - defined by block groups and tracts - and the other associated with the extent of variation among households in different neighborhoods. Consistent with previous work, the results reveal that the vast majority of a city?s overall income inequality - at least three quarters - is driven by within-neighborhood variation rather than between-neighborhood variation, although we find that the latter rose significantly during the 1980s, especially between block groups. We then identify a number of metropolitan area-level characteristics that are associated with both levels of and changes in the degree of each type of residential income inequality.
AUTHORS: Wheeler, Christopher H.; Elizabeth A. La Jeunesse
DATE: 2007

Working Paper
Understanding the subprime mortgage crisis
We analyze the subprime mortgage crisis: an unusually large fraction of subprime mortgages originated in 2006 being delinquent or in foreclosure only months later. We utilize a loan-level database, covering about half of all US subprime mortgages, and identify two major causes. First, over the past five years, high loan-to-value borrowers increasingly became high-risk borrowers, in terms of elevated delinquency and foreclosure rates. Lenders were aware of this and adjusted mortgage rates accordingly over time. Second, the below-average house price appreciation in 2006-2007 further contributed to the crisis.
AUTHORS: Demyanyk, Yuliya; Otto Van Hemert
DATE: 2007

Working Paper
The economic effects of violent conflict: evidence from asset market reactions
This paper studies the effects of conflict onset on asset markets applying the event study methodology. We consider a sample of 112 conflicts during the period 1974-2004 and find that a sizeable fraction of them had a significant impact on stock market indices and on major commodity prices. Furthermore, our results suggest that we are more likely to see investor reactions in response to conflicts that occur in highly polarized settings, possibly because the expected duration and intensity of the conflict is higher.
AUTHORS: Guidolin, Massimo; Eliana La Ferrara
DATE: 2005

Working Paper
Crime and arrests: deterrence or resource reallocation?
We use monthly time-series data for 20 large U.S. cities to test the deterrence hypothesis (arrests reduce crimes) and the resource reallocation hypothesis (arrests follow from an increase in crime). We find (1) weak support for the deterrence hypothesis, (2) much stronger support for the resource reallocation hypothesis, and (3) differences in city-level estimates suggest much heterogeneity in the crime and arrest relationship across regions.
AUTHORS: Garrett, Thomas A.; Ott, Lesli S.
DATE: 2010

Working Paper
Dissecting Taylor rules in a structural VAR
This paper uncovers Taylor rules from estimated monetary policy reactions using a structural VAR on U.S. data from 1959 to 2009. These Taylor rules reveal the dynamic nature of policy responses to different structural shocks. We find that U.S. monetary policy has been far more responsive over time to demand shocks than to supply shocks, and more aggressive toward inflation than output growth. Our estimated dynamic policy coefficients characterize the style of policy as a "bang-bang" control for the pre-1979 period and as a gradual control for the post 1979 period.
AUTHORS: Choi, Woon Gyu; Wen, Yi
DATE: 2010

Working Paper
Identification of dynamic economic models from reduced form VECM structures: an application of covariance restrictions
This analysis is a straightforward implementation of both long-run and short-run identifying or overidentifying restrictions on a vector error correction model in the "structural VAR" framework. The framework utilizes covariance restrictions, long-run multiplier restrictions, error correction coefficient restrictions, and restrictions on slope coefficients of the stimultaneous interactions in the "economic model." The framework is general enough to incorporate restrictions on impact multipliers. Two examples are provided. The first example is a dynamic M2 demand specification with a comparison to previous results that are constructed using restrictions on distributed lag coefficients to achieve identification. The second example illustrates the identification of equilibrium short-term and long-term interest responses of money demand using error-correction coefficient restrictions when the individual coefficients are underidentified in the cointegrating vectors in the presence of stationary interest rate spreads.
AUTHORS: Rasche, Robert H.
DATE: 2001

Working Paper
Identifying Austria's implicit monetary target: an alternative test of the "hard currency" policy
One simple test of the long-run viability of an exchange-rate peg, which complements tests based on market expectations, is to ask whether the implicit inflation target ofthe pegging country is the same as that of the anchor country. If the implicit inflation targets of the two countries are different, the peg's long-run credibility can be rejected. The implicit inflation target is defined as the policy-implied, trend rate of inflation. The proposed test is applied to the Austrian experience with a 'hard currency' policy aimed at targeting its exchange rate with the Deutsche mark.
AUTHORS: Dueker, Michael J.; Fischer, Andreas M.
DATE: 1995

Working Paper
A vector autoregressive model of Saudi Arabian inflation
AUTHORS: Rosser, J. Barkley; Sheehan, Richard G.
DATE: 1985

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