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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco  Series:Working Paper Series 

Working Paper
New Keynesian optimal-policy models: an empirical assessment

This paper estimates two optimization-based sticky-price New Keynesian models and assesses how well they describe U.S. output, inflation, and interest rate dynamics. We consider models in which either internal habit formation influence consumption behavior, and in which Calvo-pricing and inflation indexation generate price and inflation inertia. Subject to constraints dictated by household and firm behavior, monetary policy is set under discretion and the model's time-consistent equilibrium is employed to estimate key behavioral parameters. We find that specifications estimated on consumption ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2003-16

Working Paper
New evidence on cyclical and structural sources of unemployment

We provide cross-country evidence on the relative importance of cyclical and structural factors in explaining unemployment, including the sharp rise in U.S. long-term unemployment during the Great Recession of 2007-09. About 75% of the forecast error variance of unemployment is accounted for by cyclical factors?real GDP changes (?Okun?s Law?), monetary and fiscal policies, and the uncertainty effects emphasized by Bloom (2009). Structural factors, which we measure using the dispersion of industry-level stock returns, account for the remaining 25 percent. For U.S. long-term unemployment the ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2011-17

Working Paper
Foreign stock holdings: the role of information

The household finance literature documents a large fraction of the population not participating in stock markets. It is also puzzling that a much greater share of households do not participate in foreign stock markets. Recent empirical evidence points towards the role of information in determining agents' portfolio choices. I test these results into a model that incorporates information on agents' portfolio allocation decision. In the model, consumers can invest in both domestic and foreign stocks and to update their information set, agents have to pay a cost implying that consumers update ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2010-26

Working Paper
The role of capital service-life in a model with heterogenous labor and vintage capital

We examine how the economy responds to both disembodied and embodied technology shocks in a model with vintage capital. We focus on what happens when there is a change in the number of vintages of capital that are in use at any one time and on what happens when there is a change in the persistence of the shocks hitting the economy. The data suggest that these kinds of changes took place in the U.S. economy in the 1990s, when the pace of embodied technical progress appears to have accelerated. We find that embodied technology shocks lead to greater variability (of output, investment and labor ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2009-24

Working Paper
Who drove the boom in euro-denominated bond issues?

We make use of micro-level data for over 45,000 private bonds issued by over 5000 firms from 22 countries in 1990-2006 to analyze the impact that the launch of the EMU had on the currency denomination of the bond issues. To our knowledge, ours is the first systematic analysis of issue at the micro level. The use of the micro data allows us to distinguish between the response to the advent of the euro by new and seasoned bond issuers, and to condition on other issue characteristics. We find that the impact on new issuers is larger than on seasoned issuers and that most of the increase in the ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2008-20

Working Paper
Monetary policy response to oil price shocks

How should monetary authorities react to an oil price shock? This paper argues that a meaningful trade-off between stabilizing inflation and the welfare relevant output gap arises in a distorted economy once one recognizes (1) that oil (energy) cannot be easily substituted by other factors, (2) that monopolistic competition implies that production is suboptimally low in the steady state, and (3) that increases in oil prices also directly affect consumption by raising the price of fuel, heating oil, and other energy sources. While the first two conditions are necessary to introduce a ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2009-16

Working Paper
Labor Markets in the Global Financial Crisis: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

This note examines labor market performance across countries through the lens of Okun?s Law. We find that after the 1970s but prior to the global financial crisis of the 2000s, the Okun?s Law relationship between output and unemployment became more homogenous across countries. These changes presumably reflected institutional and technological changes. But, at least in the short term, the global financial crisis undid much of this convergence, in part because the affected countries adopted different labor market policies in response to the global demand shock.
Working Paper Series , Paper 2014-11

Working Paper
Tax competition among U.S. states: racing to the bottom or riding on a seesaw?

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the determination of capital tax policy by U.S. states based on new panel data, a new econometric technique, and a new theoretical model. The analysis is undertaken with a panel data set covering all 48 contiguous states for the period 1969 to 2004 and is guided by the theory of strategic tax competition. The latter suggests that capital tax policy is a function of out-of-state tax policy, in-state and out-of-state economic conditions, and, perhaps most importantly, preferences for government services. Using the Common Correlated Effects Pooled ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2008-03

Working Paper
Non-economic engagement and international exchange: the case of environmental treaties

We examine the role of non-economic partnerships in promoting international economic exchange. Since far-sighted countries are more willing to join costly international partnerships such as environmental treaties, environmental engagement tends to encourage international lending. Countries with such non-economic partnerships also find it easier to engage in economic exchanges since they face the possibility that debt default might also spill over to hinder their non-economic relationships. We present a theoretical model of these ideas, and then verify their empirical importance using a ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2006-33

Working Paper
Monetary policy and the slope factor in empirical term structure estimations

This paper examines the empirical relationship between the movement of the slope factor in term structure of nominal interest rates and exogenous monetary-policy shocks in the U.S. after 1982. Using first a six-variable VAR model and then a GMM estimation model of the "Taylor rule," I estimate the exogenous monetary-policy shocks implied by each of them in the U.S. during this period. Meanwhile, a two-factor model is used to extract the underlying slope factor of the term structure. Results from the correlation study suggest that there is strong correlation between the slope factor and the ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2002-07

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