Child Care, COVID-19, and our Economic Future
Child care is important for cultivating the future workforce, and it also ensures that working parents of today can participate in the economy, helping to achieve the Federal Reserve’s mandate for full employment. While child care in the U.S. is a piece of critical infrastructure, it is often invisible and undervalued. Straddling the lines between parenting, education, and small business, child care does not get the full attention and resources of any particular domain, and its contribution to the economy has been overlooked.Longstanding and widespread constraints in the child care sector ...
Overlooked Suburbs: The Changing Metropolitan Geography of Poverty in the Western United States
This report examines trends between 1990 and 2014—18 in the location of populations experiencing poverty, which we define as those with incomes below the federal poverty line, within metropolitan regions in the United States, with a particular focus on the western United States.We explore how growing suburban poverty is distributed across jurisdictional boundaries that shape governance outcomes, including incorporated and unincorporated suburbs. The size of a suburb and its incorporation status affect its position within local-regional political structures, and smaller suburbs may be ...
Student debt and default in the 12th District
Postsecondary educational expenses and student loan balances have been trending steadily upward, but persistent unemployment and weak economic conditions have created an alarming new trend of rising student loan defaults. This Brief examines broad trends in student borrowing in the Federal Reserve's 12th District, with an emphasis on students from low- and moderate-income households. The rise of student borrowing has important community development implications as it directly impacts the present and future financial well-being of LMI individuals.
Testing Our Hypotheses on Equitable Development: Midcourse Learning and Adapting Through SPARCC
The Strong, Prosperous, And Resilient Communities Challenge (SPARCC) supports collaborative leadership to advance changes in policy, practice, and investment that promote equitable regional development. SPARCC does this by investing in six regions across the country: Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, Memphis, and the San Francisco Bay Area. Within each site, leaders from across sectors come together at the same metaphorical table to align their vision and implement strategies for effecting regional change. SPARCC provides each site with combined grant and technical assistance funds over ...
Holding Space: Underlying Real Estate Conditions for Nonprofits in the Los Angeles Region
Over the past decade, rising real estate costs have led to displacement of low-income residents and small businesses from Los Angeles’ changing neighborhoods. This trend raises questions about the long-term ability of nonprofit organizations that operate in these neighborhoods to remain in place. The recent economic downturn related to the COVID-19 pandemic makes understanding the baseline conditions that nonprofits face in the real estate market even more critical.Previous research suggests that some San Francisco Bay Area nonprofits, particularly those that rent operating space, have ...
COVID-19 Impacts on Housing Stability in the Twelfth Federal Reserve District
In the face of layoffs and furloughs due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many renters and homeowners across the country have struggled to make their mortgage or rent payments. Banks have provided flexibility to borrowers through loan deferrals and forbearance during the pandemic. The federal CARES Act provided stimulus payments to low- and moderate-income people and expanded unemployment insurance payments by states, allowing many to continue paying their bills during the early months of the pandemic. The CARES Act also included rental assistance to be disbursed by states, a moratorium on evictions ...
On the Sidelines of the Hot Economy
While the current economy is often characterized as ?hot,? marked by low unemployment, stable prices, and sustained economic growth, many residents are not enjoying the prosperity reflected in the aggregate measures of economic well-being. This report focuses on those who have not reaped the benefits of recent sustained growth in the economy. The report highlights groups who have faced barriers to economic participation and documents interrelated rising costs?particularly for housing, transportation, and childcare?that contribute to keeping people on the sidelines of the economy.
Suburbanization of poverty in the Bay Area
Despite its persistent association with the "inner city," poverty has shifted toward the suburbs in the San Francisco Bay Area over the past decade. Using data from the 2000 census and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates, this research brief examines the changing geography of poverty in the Bay Area and its implications for the community development field.
Climate-Related Risks Faced by Low- and Moderate-Income Communities and Communities of Color: Survey Results
The impacts of climate change are creating new risks and exacerbating existing risks for individuals, communities, and the economy. Climate shocks and stresses disproportionately impact groups that have traditionally faced higher barriers to participating in the economy than the general population, including low-income communities, communities of color, and Tribal populations. Our team fielded a survey targeting professionals in the western United States from a broad range of sectors whose work on community development‒related issues impacts the personal and economic well-being of ...