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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco  Series:Community Development Research Brief 

Journal Article
Understanding CDFI Financial Data: A Primer for New Investors

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) are gaining broader recognition as effective conduits of capital to underserved communities. As a result of the diversity of CDFI business models and their unique approach to blending different capital sources, these mission-driven capital providers have varied and often complex financial structures, and their financial statements can be difficult to understand for those not familiar with the sector. As interest in the sector from prospective investors has grown, so too has the need for broader understanding of how to assess CDFI financial ...
Community Development Research Brief , Volume 2023 , Issue 05 , Pages 28

Journal Article
Suburbanization of poverty in the Bay Area

Despite its persistent association with the "inner city," poverty has shifted toward the suburbs in the San Francisco Bay Area over the past decade. Using data from the 2000 census and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates, this research brief examines the changing geography of poverty in the Bay Area and its implications for the community development field.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue January , Pages 1-17

Journal Article
Testing Our Hypotheses on Equitable Development: Midcourse Learning and Adapting Through SPARCC

The Strong, Prosperous, And Resilient Communities Challenge (SPARCC) supports collaborative leadership to advance changes in policy, practice, and investment that promote equitable regional development. SPARCC does this by investing in six regions across the country: Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, Memphis, and the San Francisco Bay Area. Within each site, leaders from across sectors come together at the same metaphorical table to align their vision and implement strategies for effecting regional change. SPARCC provides each site with combined grant and technical assistance funds over ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 01 , Pages 01-19

Journal Article
Student debt and default in the 12th District

Postsecondary educational expenses and student loan balances have been trending steadily upward, but persistent unemployment and weak economic conditions have created an alarming new trend of rising student loan defaults. This Brief examines broad trends in student borrowing in the Federal Reserve's 12th District, with an emphasis on students from low- and moderate-income households. The rise of student borrowing has important community development implications as it directly impacts the present and future financial well-being of LMI individuals.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue Dec , Pages 01-15

Journal Article
Overlooked Suburbs: The Changing Metropolitan Geography of Poverty in the Western United States

This report examines trends between 1990 and 2014—18 in the location of populations experiencing poverty, which we define as those with incomes below the federal poverty line, within metropolitan regions in the United States, with a particular focus on the western United States.We explore how growing suburban poverty is distributed across jurisdictional boundaries that shape governance outcomes, including incorporated and unincorporated suburbs. The size of a suburb and its incorporation status affect its position within local-regional political structures, and smaller suburbs may be ...
Community Development Research Brief , Volume 2022 , Issue 01 , Pages 160

Journal Article
At What Cost? Student Loan Debt in the Bay Area

For most Americans, an investment in higher education is a key driver of economic security and mobility. However, rapidly rising costs of attendance, combined with stagnant wages and inadequate support systems for vulnerable borrowers have resulted in outcomes that are at odds with our collective vision of higher education as a crucial foundation for achieving the American Dream. This report highlights the local contours of this issue in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region, particularly for low-income communities and communities of color, using Federal Reserve Bank of New York ...
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 03 , Pages 01-52

Journal Article
Funds for Kickstarting Affordable Housing Preservation and Production: Lessons for New Investors

A shortage of affordable homes for workers and families at all income levels across the country calls for innovative solutions. Over the past decade, a variety of public-private loan funds have developed to kick-start construction and preservation of affordable housing. This report breaks down how these funds fit into the process of developing and preserving affordable housing and shares lessons for those who are considering starting or investing in a fund.
Community Development Research Brief , Issue 02 , Pages 01-19

Journal Article
Assessing the Durability of COVID-Era Capacity Gains Among Community-Based Organizations: Lessons from the Emergency Rental Assistance Program

To better understand the impact of the Emergency Rental Assistance Program’s conclusion on community-based organizations and on their scope and scale of work after ERAP, this brief draws on interviews conducted with practitioners involved with nearly two dozen ERA programs across the country. These interviews help shed light on how the dwindling and, in many cases, cessation of ERAP funds is affecting organizations’ capacity along multiple dimensions as they scale back, reorient, and move on post ERAP.
Community Development Research Brief , Volume 2024 , Issue 01 , Pages 21

Journal Article
Overwork Impacts on Low-Wage Workers: Insights from the Food Manufacturing Sector in Oregon and Washington

Unstable scheduling refers to such employer practices as last-minute schedule changes, lack of advance notice, requiring employees to be on-call, split shifts, “clopening,” and variable hours and shift times. Evidence has shown that such practices can lead to underwork, or involuntary part-time hours, particularly for service-sector workers. But another, less-explored dimension of unstable scheduling practices—and the focus of this analysis—is overwork. Overwork stems from practices that can limit the ability of workers to get adequate rest and can heighten the bodily and emotional ...
Community Development Research Brief , Volume 2023 , Issue 3 , Pages 24

Journal Article
Child Care, COVID-19, and our Economic Future

Child care is important for cultivating the future workforce, and it also ensures that working parents of today can participate in the economy, helping to achieve the Federal Reserve’s mandate for full employment. While child care in the U.S. is a piece of critical infrastructure, it is often invisible and undervalued. Straddling the lines between parenting, education, and small business, child care does not get the full attention and resources of any particular domain, and its contribution to the economy has been overlooked.Longstanding and widespread constraints in the child care sector ...
Community Development Research Brief , Volume 2020 , Issue 05 , Pages 09

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