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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond  Series:Working Paper 

Working Paper
Liquidity Risk, Bank Networks, and the Value of Joining the Federal Reserve System

Reducing systemic liquidity risk related to seasonal swings in loan demand was one reason for the founding of the Federal Reserve System. Existing evidence on the post-Federal Reserve increase in the seasonal volatility of aggregate lending and the decrease in seasonal interest rate swings suggests that it succeeded in that mission. Nevertheless, less than 8 percent of state-chartered banks joined the Federal Reserve in its first decade. Some have speculated that nonmembers could avoid higher costs of the Federal Reserve?s reserve requirements while still obtaining access indirectly to the ...
Working Paper , Paper 16-6

Working Paper
Does Greater Inequality Lead to More Household Borrowing? New Evidence from Household Data

One suggested hypothesis for the dramatic rise in household borrowing that preceded the financial crisis is that low-income households increased their demand for credit to finance higher consumption expenditures in order to "keep up" with higher-income households. Using household level data on debt accumulation during 2001-2012, we show that low-income households in high-inequality regions accumulated less debt relative to income than their counterparts in lower-inequality regions, which negates the hypothesis. We argue instead that these patterns are consistent with supply-side ...
Working Paper , Paper 14-1

Working Paper
Contingent capital: the trigger problem

Price triggers in contingent capital bonds are analyzed. Pervasiveness of multipleequilibria and nonexistence of equilibrium in theoretical models is illustrated. Evidence of these problems from market experiments is summarized. Possible solutions are evaluated.
Working Paper , Paper 11-07

Working Paper
The time-varying Beveridge curve

We use a Bayesian time-varying parameter structural VAR with stochastic volatility to investigate changes in both the reduced-form relationship between vacancies and the unemployment rate, and in their relationship conditional on permanent and transitory output shocks, in the post-WWII United States. Evidence points towards similarities and differences between the Great Recession and the Volcker disinflation, and wide-spread time variation along two key dimensions. First, the slope of the Beveridge curve exhibits a large extent of variation from the mid-1960s on. It is also notably ...
Working Paper , Paper 13-12

Working Paper
Multibank holding companies and bank behavior

The most dramatic development in banking in recent years has been the rise of bank holding companies. More than 1,750 of these banking operations now control most of America's bank assets and deposits.
Working Paper , Paper 75-01

Working Paper
The dynamic effects of government spending shocks on employment and work hours

In this paper, we analyze the dynamic behavior of employment and hours worked per worker in a stochastic general equilibrium model with a matching mechanism between vacancies and unemployed workers. The model is estimated for the U.S. using the Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) estimation technique. An increase in government spending raises hours worked per worker, and crowds out private consumption due to a negative wealth effect. On the path converging towards the steady state, private consumption is below its long run average and increases, which implies that the interest rate is above ...
Working Paper , Paper 98-09

Working Paper
Financial innovation in the United States -- background, current and prospects

The purpose of this paper is to describe recent financial innovation in the United States, outline its principal implications with regard to (1) the structure and behavior of financial markets and (2) the conduct of monetary policy, and speculate on the likely character of further innovation in the near-term future. In the United States as elsewhere, financial innovation has been a continuous but uneven process, where the rate of innovation has varied substantially from one period to the next depending on a variety of circumstances.
Working Paper , Paper 85-02

Working Paper
Productivity insurance: the role of unemployment benefits in a multi-sector model

We construct a multi-sector search and matching model where the unemployed receive idiosyncratic productivity shocks that make working in certain sectors more productive than in the others. Agents must decide which sector to search in and face moving costs when leaving their current sector for another. In this environment, unemployment is associated with an additional risk: low future wages if mobility costs preclude search in the appropriate sector. This introduces a new role for unemployment benefits?productivity insurance while unemployed. Analytically, we characterize two competing ...
Working Paper , Paper 13-11

Working Paper
(S,s) Inventory policies in general equilibrium

We study the aggregate implications of (S,s) inventory policies in a dynamic general equilibrium model with aggregate uncertainty. Firms in the model's retail sector face idiosyncratic demand risk, and (S,s) inventory policies are optimal because of fixed order costs. The distribution of inventory holdings affects the aggregate outcome in two ways: variation in the decision to order and variation in the rate of sale through the pricing decisions of retailers. We find that both mechanisms must operate to reconcile observations that orders are more volatile than, and inventory investment is ...
Working Paper , Paper 97-07

Working Paper
What is the Monetary Standard

The monetary standard emerges out of the interaction of monetary policy with the structure of the economy. Characterization of the monetary standard thus requires specification of a model of the economy with a central bank reaction function. Such a specification raises all the fundamental issues of identification in macroeconomics.
Working Paper , Paper 15-16

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