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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond  Series:Richmond Fed Economic Brief 

Briefing
Small business lending during the recession

Access to credit enables businesses to smooth income streams and take advantage of growth opportunities. Without credit, a business may be forced to cut production or restrain growth. If credit constraints affect businesses across economic sectors, the result could be widespread declines in production and employment. Since the recession started in 2007, there has been a growing concern that small businesses may lack adequate access to credit. This Economic Brief examines the complexity of small business credit issues
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Feb

Briefing
Inequality in and across Cities

Inequality in the United States has an important spatial component. More-skilled workers tend to live in larger cities where they earn higher wages. Less-skilled workers make lower wages and do not experience similar gains even when they live in those cities. This dynamic implies that larger cities are also more unequal. These relationships appear to have become more pronounced as inequality has increased. The evidence points to externalities among high-skilled workers as a significant contributor to those patterns.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue October

Briefing
What Do Recent Studies Say About Crime and Policing? Part 2

Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 21 , Issue 29b

Briefing
Are the Effects of Fiscal Policy Asymmetric?

Economic research on the size of the fiscal multiplier has assumed that the effects of changes in government spending are symmetric ? that is, they influence economic output to the same degree whether the change is an increase or a decrease. Richmond Fed research indicates that this is not the case; the fiscal multiplier does vary according to the direction of the fiscal action and also varies with the stage of the economic cycle. This finding sheds light on likely outcomes of fiscal policies and helps account for inconsistent estimates of the multiplier in the literature.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue September

Briefing
Why Is the U.S. Lagging in Adopting Mobile Payments?

Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 21 , Issue 21

Briefing
Will a Surge in Labor Force Participation Impede Unemployment Rate Improvement?

The labor force participation rate has been falling since 2000, a trend that accelerated somewhat during the recession of 2007-09. Some economists and journalists have questioned whether recent improvements in the labor market will cause non-participants to re-enter the labor force at a faster rate, thus offsetting job growth and impeding further declines in the unemployment rate. But recent worker-flow research suggests that this scenario is unlikely.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Aug

Briefing
All Mortgages Are Not Created Equal

Housing experts have studied the relative performance of different types of mortgages during the housing crisis. But foreclosure analysis often overlooks distinctions between mortgages issued to occupant owners and those issued to non-occupant owners. This Economic Brief highlights the impact of non-occupant-owner mortgages on the housing crisis.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Jan

Briefing
Reforming Money Market Mutual Funds: A Difficult Assignment

The money market mutual fund (MMMF) industry was one of many segments of the financial sector that experienced significant volatility during the 2007?08 financial crisis. Reform efforts have been underway to make the industry more resilient to shocks, but proposals have been controversial. This Economic Brief explores some of the key issues and sheds light on why reforming this industry has been so challenging.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Feb

Briefing
Is stimulative fiscal policy more effective at the zero lower bound?

Several recent research efforts have found that stimulative fiscal policy ? government spending or tax cuts ? can have unusual effects when nominal interest rates are as low as they are today. In particular, some studies have found that the government spending "multiplier" can be much larger at the zero lower bound. Despite these results, some caution is due when interpreting the size of the fiscal multiplier.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Aug

Briefing
Rolling back the financial safety net

The expansion of the federal financial safety net has increased the incentives for financial firms to take on more risk than they would have otherwise. Yet current regulatory reform proposals do not address this root cause of financial instability. Sharply curtailing the financial safety net is a necessary step to achieve enhanced market discipline.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Nov

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