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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond  Series:Richmond Fed Economic Brief 

Briefing
Assessing GSE Mortgage Portfolios’ Exposure to Past and Future Flood Risk

This article evaluates the exposure of government-sponsored enterprises' (GSEs) mortgage portfolios to flood risks as projected by the First Street Foundation and analyzes the realized impact of Hurricane Irma on mortgage defaults. The analysis leverages extensive GSE data spanning from 1999 to 2023 and utilizes risk projections through 2050 to provide a comprehensive view of both potential future risks and actual past outcomes.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 24 , Issue 22

Briefing
How Does Trade Policy Get Decided?

The interests of districts play a crucial role in trade policymaking. Districts with heterogenous political and economic preferences form coalitions and bargain in the legislature to reach an acceptable trade policy. Such complicated process has been overlooked in canonical political economy models of trade. Our work brings to focus the role districts play in the political process by proposing a model that aggregates heterogeneous district preferences into a national trade policy. The approach uncovers districts and sectors that are more influential in the political process and identifies ...
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 22 , Issue 11

Briefing
Removing Conflict of Interest for Agents of Homebuyers

In real estate transactions, sellers' agents have weak incentives to market homes sufficiently long to secure top prices for their clients. Buyers' agents, however, face completely backward incentives: They get paid more when their clients pay more for their homes. We discuss an a la carte compensation model for buyers' agents that eliminates this conflict of interest.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 23 , Issue 34

Briefing
The Role of Central Bank Lending in the Conduct of Monetary Policy

Central banks can extend credit in pursuit of different policy objectives, two of which are discussed in this Economic Brief. First, lending can be used to achieve interest rate control. Second, lending can be used to provide liquidity insurance. A narrow view of central bank lending emphasizes the first objective, in which subsidized credit to targeted market participants is not seen as essential. A broader view considers targeted lending as sometimes necessary. Which perspective is favored is largely, though not wholly, dependent on judgments about the prevalence of frictions that inhibit ...
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue December

Briefing
Unsustainable fiscal policy : implications for monetary policy

The debt of the U.S. government is at historically high levels, but how do we know whether debt levels are worrisome? This Economic Brief argues that the current fiscal position is not sustainable. Though financial markets seem unconcerned, for the time being, about U.S. fiscal health, as evidenced by low rates on Treasury securities, lawmakers should not be complacent. Expectations are liable to change as large fiscal imbalances persist, with potentially devastating consequences for the U.S. economy and monetary policy.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue Jul

Briefing
How Do Small Business Finance and Monetary Policy Interact?

Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 20 , Issue 11 , Pages 6 pgs.

Briefing
A More Comprehensive Measure of the Black-White Wealth Gap

In this article, we apply a simple graphical device — the plot of the relative rank distribution — to summarize the Black-White wealth gap. We also introduce the relative rank Gini coefficient — an analog to the standard Gini coefficient — as a summary measure of rank inequality. We find that the rank wealth gap is widest in the middle of the wealth distribution. Black-White rank wealth gaps are higher among college graduates than among other education groups. Households with young or retired heads have higher rank gaps than middle-aged households. We caution that rank gaps are not ...
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 22 , Issue 17

Briefing
What Survey Measures of Inflation Expectations Tell Us

Throughout this period of high inflation, people have wondered when inflation will return to the FOMC's longer-run target of 2 percent. Many models and surveys on inflation expectations exist to help answer this question. In this Economic Brief, we explore the accuracy of these measures of inflation expectations and what information can be obtained from them. While we find these popular sources of inflation are historically inaccurate, they can still gather valuable information, such as people's confidence in the ability of the Fed to get inflation back to target.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 23 , Issue 03

Briefing
How Do Firms Choose Where to Place Establishments?

Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 21 , Issue 34

Briefing
Expanding the Scope of Workforce Development

Workforce development efforts often are geared toward adult workers. But examining workforce development from the perspective of human capital theory suggests that earlier interventions may yield high returns.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue May

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