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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia  Series:Working Papers 

Working Paper
Piercing Through Opacity: Relationships and Credit Card Lending to Consumers and Small Businesses During Normal Times and the COVID-19 Crisis

We investigate bank relationships in a rarely considered context – consumer and small business credit cards. Using over one million accounts, we find during normal times, consumer relationship customers enjoy relatively favorable credit terms, consistent with the bright side of relationships, while the dark side dominates for small businesses. During the COVID-19 crisis, both groups benefit, reflecting intertemporal smoothing, with more benefits flowing to safer relationship customers. Conventional banking relationships benefit consumers more than credit card relationships, with mixed ...
Working Papers , Paper 21-19

Working Paper
How Resilient Is Mortgage Credit Supply? Evidence from the COVID-19 Pandemic

We study the evolution of US mortgage credit supply during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the mortgage market experienced a historic boom in 2020, we show there was also a large and sustained increase in intermediation markups that limited the pass-through of low rates to borrowers. Markups typically rise during periods of peak demand, but this historical relationship explains only part of the large increase during the pandemic. We present evidence that pandemic-related labor market frictions and operational bottlenecks contributed to unusually inelastic credit supply, and that ...
Working Papers , Paper 21-20

Working Paper
Macroeconomic Forecasting and Variable Ordering in Multivariate Stochastic Volatility Models

We document five novel empirical findings on the well-known potential ordering drawback associated with the time-varying parameter vector autoregression with stochastic volatility developed by Cogley and Sargent (2005) and Primiceri (2005), CSP-SV. First, the ordering does not affect point prediction. Second, the standard deviation of the predictive densities implied by different orderings can differ substantially. Third, the average length of the prediction intervals is also sensitive to the ordering. Fourth, the best ordering for one variable in terms of log-predictive scores does not ...
Working Papers , Paper 21-21

Working Paper
Measuring Employer-to-Employer Reallocation

We revisit the measurement of Employer-to-Employer (EE) transitions in the monthly Current Population Survey. We detect sharp increases in the incidence of missing answers to the relevant question starting in 2007, when the U.S. Census Bureau introduced the Respondent Identification Policy. We show evidence of non response selection by both observable and unobservable worker characteristics that correlate with EE mobility. We propose a selection model and aprocedure to impute missing answers, thus EE transitions. Our imputed EE aggregate series restores a close congruence with the business ...
Working Papers , Paper 21-22

Working Paper
Aging and the Real Interest Rate in Japan: A Labor Market Channel

This paper explores a causal link between aging of the labor force and declining trends in the real interest rate in Japan. We develop a search/matching model that features heterogeneous workers with respect to their ages and firm-specific skills. Using the model, we examine the long-run implications of the sharp drop in labor force entry in the 1970s. We show that the changes in the demographic structure induce significant low-frequency movements in per capita consumption growth and the real interest rate. The model suggests that aging of the labor force accounts for 40 percent or more of ...
Working Papers , Paper 21-23

Working Paper
Capital Buffers in a Quantitative Model of Banking Industry Dynamics

We develop a model of banking industry dynamics to study the quantitative impact of regulatory policies on bank risk taking and market structure as well as the feedback effect of market structure on the efficacy of policy. Since our model is matched to U.S. data, we propose a market structure where big banks with market power interact with small, competitive fringe banks. Banks face idiosyncratic funding shocks in addition to aggregate shocks which affect the fraction of performing loans in their portfolio. A nontrivial bank size distribution arises out of endogenous entry and exit, as well ...
Working Papers , Paper 21-24

Working Paper
Capital requirements in a quantitative model of banking industry dynamics

We develop a model of banking industry dynamics to study the quantitative impact of capital requirements on bank risk taking, commercial bank failure, and market structure. We propose a market structure where big, dominant banks interact with small, competitive fringe banks. Banks accumulate securities like Treasury bills and undertake short-term borrowing when there are cash flow shortfalls. A nontrivial size distribution of banks arises out of endogenous entry and exit, as well as banks? buffer stocks of securities. We test the model using business cycle properties and the bank lending ...
Working Papers , Paper 14-13

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