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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia  Series:Community Affairs Discussion Paper 

Discussion Paper
The Future of Cash

In many advanced economies around the world, the share of transactions conducted using cash payments has been falling over the past several years. This change has likely been because of a combination of shifting consumer tastes, improvements in payment technology (specifically credit and debit cards), and the rapid growth of online transactions. As the decline in the cash share has led to some businesses choosing not to accept cash payments, many policymakers have discussed interventions to ensure access to the modern economy for consumers who prefer to pay in cash. Despite the reduced use of ...
Community Affairs Discussion Paper , Paper 21-03

Discussion Paper
How to spend $3.92 billion: stabilizing neighborhoods by addressing foreclosed and abandoned properties

The Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 created the Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP), under which states, cities, and counties will receive a total of $3.92 billion to acquire, rehabilitate, demolish, and redevelop foreclosed and abandoned residential properties. These funds can stabilize hard-hit neighborhoods, putting them on the path to market recovery. This will only happen, however, if they are used in ways that are strategically targeted and sensitive to market conditions. This paper outlines 11 key principles that states, counties, and cities should follow as they plan ...
Community Affairs Discussion Paper , Paper 08-01

Discussion Paper
GENDER DISPARITIES IN FINANCIAL WELL-BEING: from the Survey of Household Economics and Decisionmaking

This report analyzes gender differences with respect to individuals’ banking habits, credit access, and retirement planning from the Federal Reserve Board’s 2018 Survey of Household Economics and Decisionmaking (SHED).
Community Affairs Discussion Paper

Discussion Paper
The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and Bank Branching Patterns

This paper examines the relationship between the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and bank branching patterns, measured by the risk of branch closure and the net loss of branches at the neighborhood level, in the aftermath of Great Recession. Between 2009 and 2017, there was a larger decline in the number of bank branches in lower-income neighborhoods than in more affluent ones, raising concerns about access to mainstream financial services. However, once we control for supply and demand factors that influence bank branching decisions, we find generally consistent evidence that the CRA is ...
Community Affairs Discussion Paper , Paper 19-1

Discussion Paper
EXPLORING A SKILLS-BASED APPROACH TO OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY

Our work is motivated by two concepts: first, that economic mobility could be improved by greater opportunities for occupational mobility, particularly out of lower-wage employment, and second, that a skills-based approach to occupational mobility could uncover potential transitions that may not be obvious when only considering more traditional qualifications such as years of directly relevant experience or higher levels of formal education.
Community Affairs Discussion Paper

Discussion Paper
How Does Buy Now, Pay Later Affect Customers’ Credit?

In this paper, we explore the relationship between consumers’ use of buy now, pay later (BNPL) and their credit reports. BNPL is a deferred payment tool that allows consumers to split transactions into four payments over six weeks. Unlike many other financial products, it is offered primarily by fintech companies and advertised to consumers as free from fees and credit checks. These providers typically do not report a consumer’s use of BNPL and subsequent repayment behavior to credit bureaus, which makes studies of BNPL users’ credit more challenging. In this analysis, however, we ...
Community Affairs Discussion Paper , Paper 23-01

Discussion Paper
Alternative financial service providers and the spatial void hypothesis: the case of New Jersey and Delaware

This paper continues the use of the spatial void hypothesis methodology to analyze the location of alternative financial service providers, such as check cashing outlets and pawn shops, in New Castle County, Delaware, and Atlantic, Mercer, Monmouth, and Passaic counties in New Jersey. Also explores whether these providers are disproportionately serving minority and low-income areas.
Community Affairs Discussion Paper , Paper 09-01

Discussion Paper
HOUSEHOLD RENTAL DEBT DURING COVID-19

COVID-19 and associated economic shutdowns have led to unprecedented job losses, with up to 20 million households and 24 million individuals experiencing an unemployment spell between March 2020 and August 2020.1 The scale of these losses, their disproportionate impact on lower-income workers, and the uncertain timeline of economic recovery have raised concerns about the ability of households to maintain rent payments while out of work.
Community Affairs Discussion Paper

Discussion Paper
Affordability and availability of rental housing in Pennsylvania

The Community Affairs Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia undertook this study, Affordability and Availability of Rental Housing in Pennsylvania, to assess the housing needs of Pennsylvania's lower-income renter households and to better understand how their needs vary across the state. Our study looks at the incidence of housing problems among this group at both the beginning and the middle of the current decade. It also considers the extent to which there were shortages in the number of rental units that were both affordable and available to lower-income renters at these ...
Community Affairs Discussion Paper , Paper 09-02

Discussion Paper
“Forced Automation” by COVID-19? Early Trends from Current Population Survey Data

This empirical study evaluates whether COVID-19 and the threat of future pandemics has expedited the process of automation in the U.S. The results suggest that the pandemic displaced more workers in automatable occupations, putting them at a greater risk of being permanently automated. The automatable jobs that are more vulnerable to the pandemic include jobs that do not permit remote work, have a high risk of COVID-19 transmission, or are in the most affected sectors. While most of the job losses during the pandemic are expected to be temporary, a replication of the analysis for the Great ...
Community Affairs Discussion Paper

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