Showing results 1 to 10 of approximately 23.(refine search)
EXPLORING HOSPITAL INVESTMENTS IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
In recent years, growing attention has been paid to the nonmedical factors that affect individual and population health. Wide disparities in life expectancy can be identified across neighborhoods within the same city, highlighting the critical role of place and community context.1 Among modifiable factors, social and environmental circumstances are thought to account for roughly half of the variation in health outcomes, more than twice the portion accounted for by clinical care.
GENDER DISPARITIES IN FINANCIAL WELL-BEING: from the Survey of Household Economics and Decisionmaking
This report analyzes gender differences with respect to individuals’ banking habits, credit access, and retirement planning from the Federal Reserve Board’s 2018 Survey of Household Economics and Decisionmaking (SHED).
Student Debt Loan in Philadelphia
As of December 1, 2018, approximately 310,320 Philadelphians collectively owed $11.6 billion in student loan debt. The share of adults with student loan debt is greater in Philadelphia (25.3 percent) than in Pennsylvania (21.2 percent) and in the United States as a whole (17.3 percent). This report provides an in-depth analysis of the geographic distribution of this debt in Philadelphia. It reveals that individuals in different zip codes have drastically different experiences in how much they owe, the degree to which they struggle with repayment, and the extent to which they become ...
Effects of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) on Small Business Lending
This study provides new evidence on the effectiveness of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) on small business lending by focusing on a sample of neighborhoods with changed CRA eligibility status across the country because of an exogenous policy shock in 2013. The results of difference-in-differences analysis provide consistent evidence that the CRA promotes small business lending, especially in terms of number of loan originations, in lower-income neighborhoods. The generally positive effects of the CRA are sensitive to the types of CRA treatment. Losing CRA eligibility status has a ...
The Future of Cash
In many advanced economies around the world, the share of transactions conducted using cash payments has been falling over the past several years. This change has likely been because of a combination of shifting consumer tastes, improvements in payment technology (specifically credit and debit cards), and the rapid growth of online transactions. As the decline in the cash share has led to some businesses choosing not to accept cash payments, many policymakers have discussed interventions to ensure access to the modern economy for consumers who prefer to pay in cash. Despite the reduced use of ...
HOUSEHOLD RENTAL DEBT DURING COVID-19
COVID-19 and associated economic shutdowns have led to unprecedented job losses, with up to 20 million households and 24 million individuals experiencing an unemployment spell between March 2020 and August 2020.1 The scale of these losses, their disproportionate impact on lower-income workers, and the uncertain timeline of economic recovery have raised concerns about the ability of households to maintain rent payments while out of work.
Affordability and availability of rental housing in Pennsylvania
The Community Affairs Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia undertook this study, Affordability and Availability of Rental Housing in Pennsylvania, to assess the housing needs of Pennsylvania's lower-income renter households and to better understand how their needs vary across the state. Our study looks at the incidence of housing problems among this group at both the beginning and the middle of the current decade. It also considers the extent to which there were shortages in the number of rental units that were both affordable and available to lower-income renters at these ...
Alternative financial vehicles: rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs)
This paper describes how ROSCAs work and discusses the benefits that accrue to ROSCA participants and some of the costs they incur. Of particular interest is the introduction of a partial data set collected from a local ROSCA, which offers a glimpse of the capital costs ROSCA participants face and which could ultimately be contrasted with the capital costs faced by borrowers at mainstream financial institutions.
Home ownership education and counseling: issues in research and definition
Many public- and private-sector initiatives support the expansion of home-ownership opportunities for low- and moderate-income households. This discussion paper assesses existing research on the effectiveness of home-ownership education and counseling and opportunities for future research. A limited number of printed copies are available.
The quality of FHA lending in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware
The Federal Housing Administration (FHA), an agency within the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), insures mortgage loans made by private lenders. All FHA-insured borrowers pay mortgage insurance as one of the terms of their mortgage loan, and this insurance protects the lender against losses if the borrower defaults. In addition to providing a mortgage guarantee, the FHA single-family loan program has features such as a low down payment and a low minimum credit score that benefit borrowers who may not be able to obtain financing in the conventional market. Because of the FHA?s ...