The Future of Cash
In many advanced economies around the world, the share of transactions conducted using cash payments has been falling over the past several years. This change has likely been because of a combination of shifting consumer tastes, improvements in payment technology (specifically credit and debit cards), and the rapid growth of online transactions. As the decline in the cash share has led to some businesses choosing not to accept cash payments, many policymakers have discussed interventions to ensure access to the modern economy for consumers who prefer to pay in cash. Despite the reduced use of ...
Preserving multifamily rental housing: improving financing options in New Jersey
This paper summarizes the obstacles to financing small multifamily rental properties in New Jersey and makes recommendations for policies to address this credit need.
Subprime lending over time: the role of race
Analyzes the racial gap in subprime mortgages over time. The study estimates a portion of the gap that cannot be attributed to such characteristics as income, credit score, loan amount, degree of documentation, denial rate, residence in a minority tract, and debt-to-income ratio. It concludes that the unexplained portion suggests that bias in mortgage lending cannot be ruled out.
EXPLORING HOSPITAL INVESTMENTS IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
In recent years, growing attention has been paid to the nonmedical factors that affect individual and population health. Wide disparities in life expectancy can be identified across neighborhoods within the same city, highlighting the critical role of place and community context.1 Among modifiable factors, social and environmental circumstances are thought to account for roughly half of the variation in health outcomes, more than twice the portion accounted for by clinical care.
Affordability and availability of rental housing in Pennsylvania
The Community Affairs Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia undertook this study, Affordability and Availability of Rental Housing in Pennsylvania, to assess the housing needs of Pennsylvania's lower-income renter households and to better understand how their needs vary across the state. Our study looks at the incidence of housing problems among this group at both the beginning and the middle of the current decade. It also considers the extent to which there were shortages in the number of rental units that were both affordable and available to lower-income renters at these ...
Alternative financial service providers and the spatial void hypothesis: the case of New Jersey and Delaware
This paper continues the use of the spatial void hypothesis methodology to analyze the location of alternative financial service providers, such as check cashing outlets and pawn shops, in New Castle County, Delaware, and Atlantic, Mercer, Monmouth, and Passaic counties in New Jersey. Also explores whether these providers are disproportionately serving minority and low-income areas.
HOUSEHOLD RENTAL DEBT DURING COVID-19
COVID-19 and associated economic shutdowns have led to unprecedented job losses, with up to 20 million households and 24 million individuals experiencing an unemployment spell between March 2020 and August 2020.1 The scale of these losses, their disproportionate impact on lower-income workers, and the uncertain timeline of economic recovery have raised concerns about the ability of households to maintain rent payments while out of work.
Preserving multifamily rental housing: noteworthy multifamily assistance programs
This paper describes noteworthy multifamily-assistance programs around the country, including mortgage-insurance, secondary-market, technical-assistance, and tax-abatement programs.
Home ownership education and counseling: issues in research and definition
Many public- and private-sector initiatives support the expansion of home-ownership opportunities for low- and moderate-income households. This discussion paper assesses existing research on the effectiveness of home-ownership education and counseling and opportunities for future research. A limited number of printed copies are available.
How to spend $3.92 billion: stabilizing neighborhoods by addressing foreclosed and abandoned properties
The Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 created the Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP), under which states, cities, and counties will receive a total of $3.92 billion to acquire, rehabilitate, demolish, and redevelop foreclosed and abandoned residential properties. These funds can stabilize hard-hit neighborhoods, putting them on the path to market recovery. This will only happen, however, if they are used in ways that are strategically targeted and sensitive to market conditions. This paper outlines 11 key principles that states, counties, and cities should follow as they plan ...