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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia 

Report
A Qualitative Exploration of “Following the Money: An Analysis of Foundation Grantmaking for Community and Economic Development”
In September 2016, the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia and Atlanta released a publication titled ?Following the Money: An Analysis of Foundation Grantmaking for Community and Economic Development.? Based on data provided by the Foundation Center that capture all grants of at least $10,000 made by the 1,000 largest foundations between 2008 and 2013, the analysis finds that some metro areas received a substantially greater level of philanthropic support for community and economic development (CED) than did others during this period.
AUTHORS: St. Clair, Noelle
DATE: 2017-01

Report
A Mixed-Methods Exploration of Consumer Credit Trends by Age in the Third Federal Reserve District
While there is growing awareness of the importance of consumer credit use for the broader economy, less is understood about the full context of borrowers? balance sheets and how financial challenges change over a credit user?s lifecycle. Responding to this knowledge gap, this report takes a comparative look at the use of credit among Third Federal Reserve District residents across three age groups (18 to 34, 35 to 54, and 55 to 84 years). Combining analysis of credit bureau data with insights from interviews with housing and credit counselors, this report provides a comprehensive overview of key consumer credit issues and their impact on the financial well-being of consumers in each age group.
AUTHORS: Divringi, Eileen; Baldini, Noelle
DATE: 2016-07

Report
A Qualitative Exploration of Affordability and Availability of Rental Housing in the Third Federal Reserve District: 2015
In February 2015, the Community Development Studies & Education (CDS&E) Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia released a publication titled Affordability and Availability of Rental Housing in the Third Federal Reserve District: 2015. Following the release of the report, housing professionals were interviewed to further investigate the rental housing affordability challenges in the Third Federal Reserve District. This Beyond the Numbers qualitative companion report takes a more in-depth look at the challenges and trends revealed in the quantitative analysis. This report presents themes that emerged from interviews and shares insights from the field on the factors driving increased unaffordability, unit scarcity, and rising demand in the rental housing market.
AUTHORS: Baldini, Noelle
DATE: 2015-06

Journal Article
Over-the-counter swaps – before and after reform
Now that the main elements of the new regulations can be described, let?s see how a simplified trade would be typically carried out by a fictional set of institutions both before and after the reform.3 First Bank is a large dealer bank that buys and sells securities and derivatives. High Yield (HY) is a mutual fund that has a large portfolio of junk bonds. HY wants to hedge against the risk of a downturn in the junk bond market.
AUTHORS: Slonkosky, Michael
DATE: 2015-10

Journal Article
Banking Policy Review: Did Dodd–Frank End ‘Too Big to Fail’?
Postcrisis bank reform was intended to end market perceptions that if a big bank fails, the government will have no choice but to bail it out. Ryan Johnston examines the evidence from recent studies.
AUTHORS: Johnston, Ryan
DATE: 2016-10

Journal Article
Bank credit standards
Banks' lending standards at times seem too stringent and at other times too lax. The pattern seems to indicate that banks lend more easily in good times but tighten credit standards in lean times. But such a lending pattern may also be attributable to changes in borrowers' default risk over the business cycle or changes in the demand for loans, which rises and falls with GDP. Is there a systematic reason why banks might be too lax or too stringent in their lending? Economists have proposed a number of models to explain a bank lending cycle, including changes in bank capital, competition, or herding behavior. In "Bank Credit Standards," Mitchell Berlin discusses these models and the empirical evidence for each.
AUTHORS: Berlin, Mitchell
DATE: 2009-04

Journal Article
Has suburbanization diminished the importance of access to Center City?
Nine years ago, the Business Review examined the role that access to Center City Philadelphia played in people's choices about where to live and how to commute. Using 1980 census data, that analysis concluded that access to Center City by both car and public transportation shaped people's choices in important ways. But since 1980, the Philadelphia metropolitan area has undergone a great deal of change, including a decentralization of both population and employment. In this article, Dick Voith revisits the questions first posed almost a decade ago to see how employment and population shifts influenced people's choices in the 1990s.
AUTHORS: Voith, Richard
DATE: 2000-05

Journal Article
Trade deficits and the dollar: a macroeconomic perspective
AUTHORS: Meyer, Stephen A.
DATE: 1986-09

Journal Article
Is the personal bankruptcy system bankrupt?
Loretta Mester outlines the components of reform proposals. She then looks at the empirical research on personal bankruptcy to evaluate the rationale for reforming the system and the effectiveness of proposed changes. ; Also issued as Payment Cards Center Discussion Paper No. 02-02
AUTHORS: Mester, Loretta J.
DATE: 2002-01

Journal Article
Does lower unemployment reduce poverty?
In "Does Lower Unemployment Reduce Poverty?" Bob DeFina considers the link between unemployment and poverty. How strong the link is depends critically on how we measure poverty. During the past two decades, researchers have identified numerous shortcomings in the government's official procedures for determining the extent of poverty. DeFina presents empirical evidence that improved measures of poverty are less strongly related to changes in unemployment than the headcount rate, the government's official measure.>
AUTHORS: DeFina, Robert H.
DATE: 2002-07

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