Restructuring in the manufacturing workforce: New York State and the nation
We analyze the restructuring of the manufacturing workforce over the past two decades by investigating how the occupational distribution of workers has changed. We identify important regional differences in the nature and degree of this restructuring, and give particular attention to New York State's experience in relation to that of other states in the Northeast.
Tourism's role in the upstate New York economy
We begin with a broad discussion of how tourism has emerged as a force in the U.S. and regional economies. We follow with an examination of the industry's size and growth in upstate New York. We also show that the state's rural economy is generally more dependent on tourism than are its metro areas. Finally, despite its size, upstate New York's tourism industry is growing faster than the overall economies of Dutchess Country, Glens Falls, Jamestown, and Binghamton - thus making the industry an increasingly important contributor to growth.
Buffalo's employment on the rise
Employment growth in 1999 for the Buffalo metropolitan area was the strongest in a decade. Buffalo's job growth rate of 1.6 percent was still less than that of the U.S., upstate, and New York State as a whole. In a second section on the cost of rail shipping in Western New York, we present data showing that rates for the four studied commodities have in fact been above national averages. Although it is difficult to determine the exact reasons for Buffalo's higher prices, some combination of higher costs and a lack of competition likely explain the differential.
Economic strength in rural New York
In New York State, where economic growth has been sluggish for much of the last decade, the rural economy has done relatively well. The population and labor force in rural areas are expanding, and the number of jobs growing. We take a look at this robust rural economy, examining population and job growth, industrial composition, and income patterns in the state's rural areas.
Economic diversity and New York State
We consider why broad-based economies have some advantages over their more specialized counterparts. We show that diversity can be a spur to productivity and innovation, and that firms in a region with many types of businesses will enjoy easy access to the resources and services needed for production. In addition, we argue that regions with a broad mix of industries possess a buffer against economic shocks that adversely affect individual industries.
Regional business cycles in New York State
We track the business cycles for New York State and for major upstate metropolitan areas over the last quarter century and compare them with the national cycles. To date the regional cycles, we use a new methodology that combines several data series into a single composite measure - or index - of economic activity. Our findings show that New York State's recessions tend to last longer than the nation's, although the region's metropolitan areas have very different industrial compositions and thus different business cycles.
The upstate economy under the new NAICS classification system
We examine the composition of the upstate New York economy as reflected by the new NAICS (North American Industry Classification System) classifications, and explain how this new perspective changes our understanding of the economy. In addition, given the importance of manufacturing to upstate New York, we examine in detail the manufacturing sector under the new NAICS classification.
How volatile is New York State's economy?
We measure employment volatility in New York State. We find that although New York has demonstrated slow employment growth during the postwar period, its diverse industry composition has helped make it the most stable economy in the nation. We also examine the extent to which regional volatility is due to national, as opposed to local, economic fluctuations. This examination enables us to compare the volatility of New York's major metropolitan areas with a sampling of U.S. cities. Here, we find that New York's metro areas were relatively stable during the postwar period, but some areas ...
Economic restructuring in western New York State
We explore the distinctive patterns of Buffalo and Rochester's economic restructuring in detail. We compare the board structural changes in Buffalo's economy with those in Rochester's, and the changes in both metropolitan economies with those in the national economy. We also seek to understand the roots of these changes through an analysis of industry-level data. We find that although Buffalo and Rochester remain highly dependent on goods production and distribution, both cities have followed the national trend away from goods producing industries and toward service industries.
Vitality in upstate medical manufacturing
We describe the medical manufacturing industry generally and examine the industry's presence in upstate New York and its metropolitan areas. We show that upstate has a considerable employment concentration in the manufacture of both medical devices and pharmaceuticals. This activity is distributed widely among the region's metropolitan areas, with Buffalo, Glens Falls, Rochester, Syracuse, and Utica specializing in the industry overall and Albany showing strength in two subindustries.