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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of New York 

Journal Article
The Federal Reserve's contingency financing plan for the century date change

With the approach of the new millennium last year, many market participants resolved to limit their exposure to Y2K-related risks by cutting back normal trading activities. The Federal Reserve foresaw that the widespread adoption of such a strategy could lead to serious liquidity problems in key financing markets. Consequently, the Fed undertook to create a Standby Financing Facility that would provide securities dealers with a form of backup funding and ease market anxieties about year-end credit conditions.
Current Issues in Economics and Finance , Volume 6 , Issue Dec

Journal Article
Is the United States losing its productivity advantage?

Strikingly high rates of labor productivity growth in China, India, and other emerging economies have prompted concerns that U.S. workers and firms are losing ground to their competitors in world markets. A closer look at the evidence, however, suggests that rapid foreign productivity growth will bring gains as well as losses to the U.S. economy. Some import-competing firms may be compelled to restructure or leave the market, but consumers will benefit from lower import prices and more import varieties, and U.S. exporters may gain access to cheaper intermediate products from abroad.
Current Issues in Economics and Finance , Volume 13 , Issue Sep

Discussion Paper
Crisis Chronicles: The Hamburg Crisis of 1799 and How Extreme Winter Weather Still Disrupts the Economy

With intermittent war raging across much of Western Europe near the end of the eighteenth century, by about 1795, Hamburg had replaced Amsterdam as an important hub for commodities trade. And from 1795 to 1799, Hamburg boomed. Prices for goods increased, the harbor was full, and warehouses were bulging. But when a harsh winter iced over the harbor, excess demand and speculation drove up prices. By spring, demand proved lower than supply, and prices started falling, credit tightened, and the decline in prices accelerated. So when a ship bound for Hamburg laden with gold sunk off the coast, an ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20140808

Discussion Paper
Introduction to a Series on Market Liquidity

Market participants and policymakers have recently raised concerns about market liquidity?the ability to buy and sell securities quickly, at any time, at minimal cost. Market liquidity supports the efficient allocation of capital through financial markets, which is a catalyst for sustainable economic growth. Changes in market liquidity, whether due to regulation, changes in market structure, or otherwise, are therefore of great interest to policymakers and market participants alike.
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20150817

Discussion Paper
China’s Continuing Credit Boom

Debt in China has increased dramatically in recent years, accounting for roughly one-half of all new credit created globally since 2005. The country’s share of total global credit is nearly 25 percent, up from 5 percent ten years ago. By some measures (as documented below), China’s credit boom has reached the point where countries typically encounter financial stress, which could spill over to international markets given the size of the Chinese economy. To better understand the associated risks, it is important to examine the drivers of China’s expansion in credit, the increasing ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20170227

Report
Do banks follow their customers abroad?

The market share of U.S. business loans made by foreign-owned banks has increased dramatically since 1980. At the same time, foreign direct investment in the U.S. rose, so that much of the increase in foreign-owned U.S.-based bank lending to businesses in the U.S. could conceivably be accounted for by an increase in loans to the U.S. affiliates of firms headquartered abroad, an expectation in line with the conventional wisdom that bans "follow their customers" abroad. Our study investigates the lending patterns of U.S.-based banks from Japan, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and ...
Research Paper , Paper 9620

Report
Regulatory evaluation of value-at-risk models

Beginning in 1998, commercial banks may determine their regulatory capital requirements for market risk exposure using value-at-risk (VaR) models; i.e., time-series models of the distributions of portfolio returns. Currently, regulators have available three statistical methods for evaluating the accuracy of VaR models: the binomial method, the interval forecast method, and the distribution forecast method. These methods test whether the VaR forecasts in question exhibit properties characteristics of accurate VaR forecasts. However, the statistical tests can have low power against alternative ...
Research Paper , Paper 9710

Speech
Improving the measurement of inflation expectations

Remarks at the Barclays 16th Annual Global Inflation-Linked Conference, New York City.
Speech , Paper 84

Journal Article
Are we underestimating the gains from globalization for the United States?

Over the last three decades, trade has more than tripled the variety of international goods available to U.S. consumers. Although an increased choice of goods clearly enhances consumer well-being, standard national measures of welfare and prices do not assign a value to variety growth. This analysis-the first effort to measure such gains-finds that the value to consumers of global variety growth in the 1972-2001 period was roughly $260 billion.
Current Issues in Economics and Finance , Volume 11 , Issue Apr

Journal Article
Sources of New York employment fluctuations

The authors analyze employment growth in the metropolitan region and its relationship to employment in the United States as a whole. They identify a strong cyclical link between the region and the nation, punctuated by occasional, persistent shifts in the region's underlying growth rate. Some shifts are found to be related to industry factors, such as the restructuring of financial services in the late 1980s. However, the authors attribute a large and increasing share of New York employment fluctuations to region-specific factors.
Economic Policy Review , Volume 3 , Issue Feb , Pages 21-35

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