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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis  Series:Working Papers 

Working Paper
Coexistence of money and interest-bearing securities

A random matching model with money is used to study the nominal yield on small denomination, bearer, safe, discount securities issued by the government. There is always one steady state with matured securities circulating at par and, for some parameters, another with them circulating at a discount. In the former, a necessary and sufficient condition for a positive nominal yield on not-yet-matured securities is exogenous discriminatory treatment of them by the government. In the latter, the post-maturity discount on securities induces a deeper pre-maturity discount even without such ...
Working Papers , Paper 550

Working Paper
Business cycle research: methods and problems

Working Papers , Paper 590

Working Paper
On the robustness of herds

Herd behavior is argued by many to be present in many markets. Existing models of such behavior have been subjected to two apparently devastating critiques. The continuous investment critique is that in the basic model herds disappear if simple zero-one investment decisions are replaced by the more appealing assumption that investment decisions are continuous. The price critique is that herds disappear if, as seems natural, other investors can observe asset market prices. We argue that neither critique is devastating. We show that once we replace the unappealing exogenous timing assumption of ...
Working Papers , Paper 622

Working Paper
Entrepreneurship, frictions and wealth

Although the role of financial constraints on entrepreneurial choices has received considerable attention, the effects of these constraints on aggregate capital accumulation and wealth inequality are less known. Entrepreneurship is an important determinant of capital accumulation and wealth concentration and, conversely, the distribution of wealth affects entrepreneurial choices in presence of borrowing constraints. We construct a model that matches wealth inequality very well, both for entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs, and find that more restrictive borrowing constraints generate less ...
Working Papers , Paper 620

Working Paper
Stagflation and Topsy-Turvy Capital Flows

Are unregulated capital flows excessive during a stagflation episode? We argue that they likely are, owing to a macroeconomic externality operating through the economy’s supply side. Inflows raise domestic wages through a wealth effect on labor supply and cause unwelcome upward pressure on marginal costs in countries where monetary policy is trying to drive down costs to stabilize inflation. Yet, market forces are likely to generate such inflows. Optimal capital flow management instead requires net outflows, suggesting topsy-turvy capital flows following markup shocks.
Working Papers , Paper 795

Working Paper
Rational expectations, hyperinflation, and the demand for money

This paper shows how to derive the family of models in which Cagan?s model of hyperinflation is a rational expectations model. The slope parameter in Cagan?s portfolio balance equation is identified in some of these models and in others it is not?a fact which clarifies results obtained in several recent papers.
Working Papers , Paper 163

Working Paper
Asymmetric expectation effects of regime shifts and the Great Moderation

We assess the quantitative importance of the expectation effects of regime shifts in monetary policy in a DSGE model that allows the monetary policy rule to switch between a ?bad? regime and a ?good? regime. When agents take into account such regime shifts in forming expectations, the expectation effect is asymmetric across regimes. In the good regime, the expectation effect is small despite agents? disbelief that the regime will last forever. In the bad regime, however, the expectation effect on equilibrium dynamics of inflation and output is quantitatively important, even if agents put a ...
Working Papers , Paper 653

Working Paper
Simulation-based Bayesian inference for economic time series

This paper surveys recently developed methods for Bayesian inference and their use in economic time series models. It begins by reviewing aspects of Bayesian inference essential to understanding the implications of the Bayesian paradigm for time series analysis. It next describes the use of posterior simulators to solve otherwise intractable analytical problems. The theory and the computational advances are brought together in setting forth a practical framework for decision-making and forecasting. These developments are illustrated in the context of the vector autoregressions, stochastic ...
Working Papers , Paper 570

Working Paper
Use it or Lose it: Efficiency Gains from Wealth Taxation

How does wealth taxation differ from capital income taxation? When the return on investment is equal across individuals, a well-known result is that the two tax systems are equivalent. Motivated by recent empirical evidence documenting persistent heterogeneity in rates of return across individuals, we revisit this question. With such heterogeneity, the two tax systems have opposite implications for both efficiency and inequality. Under capital income taxation, entrepreneurs who are more productive, and therefore generate more income, pay higher taxes. Under wealth taxation, entrepreneurs who ...
Working Papers , Paper 764

Working Paper
A test of the exogeneity of national variables in a regional econometric model

Many regional econometric models are estimated under the maintained assumption that certain national variables are exogenous with respect to the regional variables in the models. This exogeneity assumption is testable using time series methods of inference, yet, to my knowledge, no regional model has been so tested. In this paper, I test the national exogeneity assumption included in the specification of a particular regional forecasting model. Such a test is, I believe, a necessary and important step in the construction of any econometric model.
Working Papers , Paper 124




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