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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis  Series:Staff Report 

Report
How Do Households Respond to Income Shocks?

We use panel data from the Italian Survey of Household Income and Wealth from 1991 to 2016 to document empirically what components of the household budget constraint change in response to shocks to household labor income, both over shorter and over longer horizons. We show that shocks to labor income are associated with negligible changes in transfers and non-labor income components, modest changes in consumption expenditures, and large changes in wealth. We then split the sample in households which do not own business or real estate wealth, and households who do. For the first group, we find ...
Staff Report , Paper 655

Report
Instrumental variables procedures for estimating linear rational expectations models

A prediction formula for geometrically declining sums of future forcing variables is derived for models in which the forcing variables are generated by a vector autoregressive-moving average process. This formula is useful in deducing and characterizing cross-equation restrictions implied by linear rational expectations models.
Staff Report , Paper 70

Report
Engineering a paradox of thrift recession

We build a variation of the neoclassical growth model in which financial shocks to households or wealth shocks (in the sense of wealth destruction) generate recessions. Two standard ingredients that are necessary are (1) the existence of adjustment costs that make the expansion of the tradable goods sector difficult and (2) the existence of some frictions in the labor market that prevent enormous reductions in real wages (Nash bargaining in Mortensen-Pissarides labor markets is enough). We pose a new ingredient that greatly magnifies the recession: a reduction in consumption expenditures ...
Staff Report , Paper 478

Report
The young, the old, and the restless: demographics and business cycle volatility

We investigate the consequences of demographic change for business cycle analysis. We find that changes in the age composition of the labor force account for a significant fraction of the variation in business cycle volatility observed in the U.S. and other G7 economies. During the postwar period, these countries experienced dramatic demographic change, although details regarding extent and timing differ from place to place. Using panel-data methods, we exploit this variation to show that the age composition of the workforce has a large and statistically significant effect on cyclical ...
Staff Report , Paper 387

Report
Non-convexities in quantitative general equilibrium studies of business cycles

This paper reviews the role of micro non-convexities in the study of business cycles. One important non-convexity arises because an individual can work only one workweek length in a given week. The implication of this non-convexity is that the aggregate intertemporal elasticity of labor supply is large and the principal margin of adjustment is in the number employed-not in the hours per person employed-as observed. The paper also reviews a business cycle model with an occasionally binding capacity constraint. This model better mimics business cycle fluctuations than the standard real business ...
Staff Report , Paper 312

Report
Government Guarantees and the Valuation of American Banks

Banks' ratio of the market value to book value of their equity was close to 1 until the 1990s, then more than doubled during the 1996-2007 period, and fell again to values close to 1 after the 2008 financial crisis. Sarin and Summers (2016) and Chousakos and Gorton (2017) argue that the drop in banks' market-to-book ratio since the crisis is due to a loss in bank franchise value or profitability. In this paper we argue that banks' market-to-book ratio is the sum of two components: franchise value and the value of government guarantees. We empirically decompose the ratio between these two ...
Staff Report , Paper 567

Report
Monopoly rights: a barrier to riches

Our thesis is that poor countries are poor because they employee arrangements for which the equilibrium outcomes are characterized by inferior technologies being used, and being used inefficiently. In this paper, we analyze the consequences of one such arrangement. In each industry, the arrangement enables a coalition of factor suppliers to be the monopoly seller of its input services to all firms using a particular production process. We find that the inefficiencies associated with this monopoly arrangement can be large. Whereas other studies have found that inefficiencies induced by ...
Staff Report , Paper 236

Report
Econometric evaluation of asset pricing models

We provide a brief review of the techniques that are based on the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and used for evaluating capital asset pricing models. We first develop the CAPM and multi-beta models and discuss the classical two-stage regression method originally used to evaluate them. We then describe the pricing kernel representation of a generic asset pricing model; this representation facilitates use of the GMM in a natural way for evaluating the conditional and unconditional versions of most asset pricing models. We also discuss diagnostic methods that provide additional insights.
Staff Report , Paper 206

Report
Fiscal deadlock in Minnesota

Staff Report , Paper 7

Report
Time consistent monetary policy with endogenous price rigidity

I characterize time consistent equilibrium in an economy with price rigidity and an optimizing> monetary authority operating under discretion. Firms have the option to increase their frequency> of price change, at a cost, in response to higher inflation. Previous studies, which assume a constant> degree of price rigidity across inflation regimes, find two time consistent equilibria ? one with low> inflation, the other with high inflation. In contrast, when price rigidity is endogenous, the high> inflation equilibrium ceases to exist. Hence, time consistent equilibrium is unique. This result> ...
Staff Report , Paper 390

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