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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis  Series:Staff Report 

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Usury laws and the housing market: the Minnesota experience

Staff Report , Paper 39

Report
Supplementary appendix: Careers in firms: estimating a model of learning, job assignment, and human capital aquisition

In this appendix I present details of the model and of the empirical analysis and results of counterfactual experiments omitted from the paper. In Section 1 I describe a simple example that illustrates how, even in the absence of (technological) human capital acquisition, productivity shocks, or separation shocks, the learning component of the model can naturally generate mobility between jobs within a firm and turnover between firms. I also present omitted details of the proofs of Propositions 1, 2, and 3 in the paper. In Section 2 I provide an overview of the numerical solution of the ...
Staff Report , Paper 470

Report
On the need for a new approach to analyzing monetary policy

We present a pricing kernel that summarizes well the main features of the dynamics of interest rates and risk in postwar U.S. data and use it to uncover how the pricing kernel has moved with the short rate. Our findings imply that standard monetary models miss an essential link between the central bank instrument and the economic activity that monetary policy is intended to affect, and thus we call for a new approach to monetary policy analysis. We sketch a new approach using an economic model based on our pricing kernel. The model incorporates the key relationships between policy and risk ...
Staff Report , Paper 412

Report
Fragility of reputation and clustering of risk-taking

Concerns about constructing and maintaining good reputations are known to reduce borrowers' excessive risk-taking. However, I find that the self-discipline induced by these concerns is fragile, and can break down without obvious changes in economic fundamentals. Furthermore, in the aggregate, breakdowns are clustered among borrowers with intermediate and good reputations, which can exacerbate an economy's weakness and contribute to a broad economic crisis. These results come from an aggregate dynamic global game analysis of reputation formation in credit markets. The selection of a unique ...
Staff Report , Paper 431

Report
On the existence and uniqueness of nonoptimal equilibria in dynamic stochastic economies

The question of the existence and uniqueness of a stationary equilibrium for distorted versions of the standard neoclassical growth model is addressed in this paper. The conditions presented guaranteeing the existence and uniqueness of nontrivial equilibrium for the class of economies under study are simple and intuitively appealing, while the existence and uniqueness proof developed is elementary. Examples are presented illustrating that economies with distortional taxation, endogenous growth with externalities, and monopolistic competition can all fit into the framework developed.
Staff Report , Paper 151

Report
Chaotic dynamics and bifurcation in a macro model

The qualitative dynamics of a discrete time version of a deterministic, continuous time, nonlinear macro model formulated by Haavelmo are fully characterized. Recently developed methods of symbolic dynamics and ergodic theory are shown to provide a simple, effective means of analyzing the behavior of the resulting one-parameter family of first-order, deterministic, nonlinear difference equations. A complex periodic and random ?aperiodic? orbit structure dependent on a key structural parameter is present, which contrasts with the total absence of such complexity in Haavelmo?s continuous time ...
Staff Report , Paper 55

Report
Optimal fiscal and monetary policy

We provide an introduction to optimal fiscal and monetary policy using the primal approach to optimal taxation. We use this approach to address how fiscal and monetary policy should be set over the long run and over the business cycle. We find four substantive lessons for policymaking: Capital income taxes should be high initially and then roughly zero; tax rates on labor and consumption should be roughly constant; state-contingent taxes on assets should be used to provide insurance against adverse shocks; and monetary policy should be conducted so as to keep nominal interest rates close to ...
Staff Report , Paper 251

Report
Understanding international prices: customers as capital

This paper develops a theory of pricing-to-market driven by marketing and bargaining frictions. Our key innovation is a capital theoretic model of marketing in which relations with customers are valuable. In our model, producers search and form long-lasting relations with their customers, and marketing helps overcome the search frictions involved in forming such matches. In the context of international business cycle patterns, the model accounts for observations that are puzzles for a large class of theories: (i) pricing-to-market, (ii) positive correlation of aggregate real export and import ...
Staff Report , Paper 411

Report
Online Appendix for: Comment on "Star Wars: The Empirics Strike Back"

This appendix contains the pre-registered analysis for our comment on “Star Wars: The Empirics Strike Back” by Brodeur et al (2016). To structure the analysis, we reproduce the pre-registration; our results appear in red under each of the relevant parts. The time-stamped version of the pre-registration is available from the Open Science Framework website at the address https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/58MNJ.To understand this appendix deeply, we recommend carefully reading Brodeur et al (2016). The body of our comment paper outlines only the intuition of their method. In some of the ...
Staff Report , Paper 630

Report
Trade, growth, and convergence in a dynamic Heckscher-Ohlin model

In models in which convergence in income levels across closed countries is driven by faster accumulation of a productive factor in the poorer countries, opening these countries to trade can stop convergence and even cause divergence. We make this point using a dynamic Heckscher-Ohlin model ? a combination of a static two-good, two-factor Heckscher-Ohlin trade model and a two-sector growth model ? with infinitely lived consumers where international borrowing and lending are not permitted. We obtain two main results: First, countries that differ only in their initial endowments of capital per ...
Staff Report , Paper 378

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