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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City  Series:Regional Research Working Paper 

Working Paper
Understanding Models and Model Bias with Gaussian Processes

Despite growing interest in the use of complex models, such as machine learning (ML) models, for credit underwriting, ML models are difficult to interpret, and it is possible for them to learn relationships that yield de facto discrimination. How can we understand the behavior and potential biases of these models, especially if our access to the underlying model is limited? We argue that counterfactual reasoning is ideal for interpreting model behavior, and that Gaussian processes (GP) can provide approximate counterfactual reasoning while also incorporating uncertainty in the underlying ...
Regional Research Working Paper , Paper RWP 23-07

Working Paper
The financial health of agricultural lenders

Regional Research Working Paper , Paper RRWP 09-01

Working Paper
Corporate taxes and union wages in the United States

Regional Research Working Paper , Paper RRWP 09-02

Working Paper
The impact of ethanol plants on cropland values in the Great Plains

Regional Research Working Paper , Paper RRWP 08-01

Working Paper
Passing the burden: corporate tax incidence in open economies

Regional Research Working Paper , Paper RRWP 07-01

Working Paper
The incidence of capital taxation and the magnitude of its burden.

Regional Research Working Paper , Paper RRWP 07-02

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