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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland  Series:Working Papers (Old Series) 

Working Paper
Monetary policy in a financial crisis

What are the economic effects of an interest rate cut when an economy is in the midst of a financial crisis? Under what conditions will a cut stimulate output and employment, and raise welfare? Under which will it have the opposite effects? The authors answer these questions in a general class of open-economy models, modeling a financial crisis as a time when collateral constraints are suddenly binding. They find that when there are frictions in adjusting the level of output in the traded goods sector and the rate at which that output can be used in other parts of the economy, a cut in the ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 0204

Working Paper
Home production meets time-to-build

An innovation in this paper is to introduce a time-to-build technology for the production of market capital into a model with home production. The paper?s main finding is that the two anomalies that have plagued all household production models?the positive correlation between business and household investment, and household investment leading business investment over the business cycle?are resolved when time-to-build is added.
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 0007R

Working Paper
Moving to a job: The role of home equity, debt, and access to credit

Using credit report data from two of the three major credit bureaus in the United States, we infer with high certainty whether households move to other labor markets defined by metropolitan areas. We estimate how moving patterns relate to labor market conditions, personal credit, and homeownership using panel regressions with fixed effects which control for all constant individual-specific traits. We interpret the patterns through simulations of a dynamic model of consumption, housing, and location choice. We find that homeowners with negative home equity move more than other homeowners, in ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 1305

Working Paper
Optimal employment of scale economies in the Federal Reserve's currency infrastructure

Given estimates of shipping costs and scale economies for high-speed currency sorting, the authors investigate whether the Federal Reserve might lower its costs by reallocating the volume of sorting among its processing sites.
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 9810

Working Paper
Costly Information Intermediation as a Natural Monopoly

In this paper, we show that information trade has similar characteristics to a natural monopoly, where competition may be detrimental to efficiency due either to the duplication of direct costs or the slowing down of information dissemination. We present a model with two large populations in which consumers are randomly matched to providers on a period-by-period basis. Despite a moral hazard problem, cooperation can be sustained through an institution that gives incentives to information exchange. We consider different information pricing mechanisms (membership vs. buy and sell) and different ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 1721

Working Paper
Entry, exit and the determinants of market structure

Market structure is determined by the entry and exit decisions of individual producers. These decisions are driven by expectations of future profits which, in turn, depend on the nature of competition within the market. In this paper we estimate a dynamic, structural model of entry and exit in an oligopolistic industry and use it to quantify the determinants of market structure and long-run firm values for two U.S. service industries, dentists and chiropractors. We find that entry costs faced by potential entrants, fixed costs faced by incumbent producers, and the toughness of short-run price ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 0907

Working Paper
Oil prices, monetary policy, and counterfactual experiments

Recessions are associated with both rising oil prices and increases in the federal funds rate. Are recessions caused by the spikes in oil prices or by the sharp tightening of monetary policy? This paper discusses the difficulties in disentangling these two effects.
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 0510

Working Paper
Friends do let friends buy stocks actively

This research is the first to provide empirical evidence that social interaction is more prevalent amongst active rather than passive investors. While previous empirical work, spearheaded by Hong, Kubik, and Stein (2004), shows that proxies for sociability are related to participation in asset markets, the literature is unable to distinguish between the types of participants because of data limitations. I address this shortcoming by using data from the Consumer Expenditure Quarterly Interview Survey on individual holdings, and buying and selling of financial assets as well as expenditure ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 1314

Working Paper
Where the Wild Things Are: Measuring Systemic Risk through Investor Sentiment

In this paper, I develop a systemic risk measure derived from investor sentiment that has predictive power over future economic activity and market returns. Unlike existing measures, it is not focused on flagging investors? heightened awareness of risk at the end of a boom episode but rather on capturing shifts in their trading behavior at the beginning of the episode. The method allows investors and regulators to observe industries in which risks could be building and provides regulators some lead time in deploying their macroprudential tools.
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 1608

Working Paper
Taylor rules in a limited participation model

The authors use the limited participation model of money to study Taylor rules' operating characteristics for setting the interest rate. Rules are evaluated according to their ability to protect the economy from bad outcomes like the burst of inflation observed in the 1970s. On the basis of their analysis, the authors argue for a rule that 1) raises the nominal interest rate more than one-for-one with a rise in inflation; and 2) does not change the interest rate in response to a change in output relative to trend.
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 9902

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