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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland  Series:Community Development Publications 

Report
Resilience and Recovery: Insights from the July 2022 Eastern Kentucky Flood

Because of its topography, location, and coal mining legacy, eastern Kentucky has a long history of flooding. This report focuses on housing in the 13 counties declared federal disaster areas after the July 2022 flood.
Community Development Publications

Report
Has Bank Consolidation Changed People’s Access to a Full-Service Bank Branch?

The consolidation that took place in the banking industry during the 2000s and 2010s led to an increase in the total number of bank branches per institution and resulted in a larger number of branches to meet customers’ banking needs.
Community Development Publications , Paper 20211006

Report
Home Mortgage Lending by Race and Income in a Time of Low Interest Rates: Examples from Select Counties in Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania from 2018 through 2021

Signed into law in 1975 by President Ford, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) requires most financial institutions to disclose information on their mortgage lending. Annually, this information creates a publicly accessible data set that includes millions of records and covers about 90 percent of mortgage lending in the United States (Gerardi, Willen, and Zhang, 2020). More information on HMDA can be found in this summary: What is HMDA and why is it important?Several years ago, the Cleveland Fed examined data for seven large urban counties in the Fourth District.1 At that time, we looked ...
Community Development Publications

Report
Home Lending Trends from Select Counties in Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania: 2018–2022

This series of reports examines home mortgages and refinances from 2018 through 2022, a period of great change. The reports look at seven large counties in Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania: Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh); Cuyahoga County, Ohio (Cleveland); Fayette County, Kentucky (Lexington); Franklin County, Ohio (Columbus); Hamilton County, Ohio (Cincinnati); Lucas County, Ohio (Toledo); and Montgomery County, Ohio (Dayton).
Community Development Publications

Report
Inflation Remains a Burden and Consumer Debt is on the Rise

The Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland’s Community Issues Survey (CIS) collects information semiannually from direct service providers to monitor economic conditions and identify issues impacting low- and moderate-income (LMI) households in the Fourth District—a region that includes Ohio, western Pennsylvania, eastern Kentucky, and the northern panhandle of West Virginia. In March 2023, we surveyed more than 600 service providers who directly serve LMI individuals and communities across our District and received 95 responses (15 percent response rate). The results of this survey, ...
Community Development Publications

Report
Using Worker Flows to Assess the Stability of the Early Childcare and Education Workforce, 2010-2022

Turnover is a particular problem among childcare workers and less so among preschool and kindergarten teachers. In 2022, turnover in childcare work was about 65 percent higher than in a typical job, while attrition among preschool and kindergarten teachers was on par with the typical occupation.
Community Development Publications

Report
Missed Connections in Cleveland: The Disconnect Between Job Access and Employment

The job access rate refers to the share of jobs in a region that can be reached within a typical commute distance or time. Job access rates in Northeast Ohio have declined continuously since 2000, as employment opportunities and the population have spread farther out (Kneebone and Holmes, 2015; Pacetti, Murray, and Hartman, 2016; Fee, 2020). Declining access to jobs has made it increasingly difficult for workers to reach their workplaces via public transportation, disproportionately impacting Black and economically distressed residents (Barkley and Pereira, 2015; Brown and McShepard, 2016).
Community Development Publications , Paper 20210811

Report
Broadband and Beyond: Getting Connected in the Fourth District

This report discusses three challenges to digital equity—access, affordability, and adoption—and the policies and programs designed to overcome them.
Community Development Publications

Report
Measuring Evictions during the COVID-19 Crisis

Evictions are a serious risk for households facing job loss and economic upheaval during the COVID-19 pandemic, and temporary policies put in place to protect renters are beginning to expire. To understand how the crisis is affecting evictions, we measured eviction filing activity across 44 cities and counties. As of July 7, 2020, eviction filings have almost returned to their prepandemic levels in places where local bans have expired or where they were never enacted. We find that eviction filings tend to surge after temporary policies expire much more in places that enacted both filing bans ...
Community Development Publications

Report
Clicking for Credit: Experiences of Online Lender Applicants from the Small Business Credit Survey

This report presents findings on the experiences of small businesses seeking credit from online lenders, based on data from the 2021 Small Business Credit Survey (SBCS). According to findings, firms that apply to online lenders are more likely to be newer and have fewer employees, lower revenues, and weaker credit scores. In addition, Black- and Hispanic-owned firms are more likely than white- and Asian-owned firms to report that they applied to an online lender. Furthermore, contrary to prior SBCS findings, online-lender applicants were less likely than bank applicants to be approved for the ...
Community Development Publications

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