Understanding the persistence of poverty
Millions of U.S. citizens continue to live in poverty within one of the wealthiest and most productive nations in the world. The Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland's 2006 Annual Report reviews some of the reasons for the persistence of poverty in America and suggests that better education and training may be the best defense against poverty.
Putting systemic risk on the radar screen
As the nation ponders its response to the greatest financial crisis in generations, plans for regulatory reform are everywhere. Proposals to break up big financial companies, create a new agency for consumer protection, and lay out additional rules for derivatives, insurance companies, and hedge funds?they?re all on the table.
The Great Depression and Japan's more recent experience convinced some central bankers that deflation is dangerous. This report, however, argues that deflation is an acceptable economic outcome if it is occasional, small in magnitude, and accompanied by strong productivity growth. They analyze the economic impact of deflation and conclude that while the zero, or very low, nominal interest rates that often accompany deflation can cause problems, many of the problems attributed to deflation are not unique to falling prices per se. Some business people mistakenly fear deflation when the real ...
2013 Annual Report Why Inflation Is Very Low, and Why It Matters
One of the Federal Reserve?s mandates is maintaining stable prices. During my more than three decades in the Federal Reserve System, the focus has been primarily on avoiding high and variable inflation, and over most of that period, the Federal Reserve has successfully fulfilled its objective to keep inflation in check. More recently, however, our attention has turned to a less familiar concern?persistently low inflation. While high inflation has well-known costs for economic performance, the problems posed by persistently low inflation can be equally harmful. As its title promises, this ...
Theory ahead of rhetoric: economic policy for a \\"new economy\\"
The most important theoretical developments in economics of the past 20 years undermine the notion that substantial benefits are to be had from policies aimed at smoothing what has come to be known as the ?business cycle.? These fine-tuning policies, moreover, may prove costly if their price is higher, unpredictable inflation. Although policymakers may have conquered the fine-tuning impulse, they have perpetuated the language that accompanies it. That is, the language of monetary policy has failed to keep pace with theory and practice. In a world where expectations matter, the language of ...
Our payments system: challenges and opportunities. 1997 Annual report of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
An essay that considers the rapid transformation of payments systems as well as the challenges and opportunities facing its participants, including the Federal Reserve.
Breaking the housing crisis cycle
A plan for breaking the housing crisis cycle is emerging from the epicenter of the nation?s foreclosure meltdown. In its just-released annual report, the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland is calling for a multi-faceted approach that aims to address the interconnected problems that have led to too many Americans losing their homes and too many neighborhoods falling into disrepair.
A puzzle for the world
An analysis of the strength of the U.S. dollar in 1984 and imbalances in U.S. international transactions.
Innovation, growth, and economic policy in an environment of change
In this report, we explore innovation as the engine of economic prosperity and argue that the greatest strength we possess is our ability to induce and embrace change, from the integration of new technologies to new peoples and cultures. Indeed, if we hope to remain an ongoing, vital player in the global economy, flexibility is likely to be our most valuable asset.
Adapting, Evolving, Learning
The Federal Reserve is an adapting, evolving, and learning organization. In the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland's 2012 Annual Report, we take a close look at how it has changed since its creation 100 years ago. Our essay describes some of the seminal episodes that have influenced the Federal Reserve as we know it today. Times have changed, economic theories have developed, and the Federal Reserve has adapted to meet new demands. In fact, over the course of its 100 years, the Federal Reserve has proved not only a willingness to change, but also an appetite for embracing and initiating change ...