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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland  Series:Annual Report 

Report
Federal Reserve policy promotes growth

A view of the relationship between monetary policy and the economy, reflecting the belief that maintaining price stability does not require high interest rates and less growth.
Annual Report

Report
Our payments system: challenges and opportunities. 1997 Annual report of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.

An essay that considers the rapid transformation of payments systems as well as the challenges and opportunities facing its participants, including the Federal Reserve.
Annual Report

Report
2013 Annual Report Why Inflation Is Very Low, and Why It Matters

One of the Federal Reserve?s mandates is maintaining stable prices. During my more than three decades in the Federal Reserve System, the focus has been primarily on avoiding high and variable inflation, and over most of that period, the Federal Reserve has successfully fulfilled its objective to keep inflation in check. More recently, however, our attention has turned to a less familiar concern?persistently low inflation. While high inflation has well-known costs for economic performance, the problems posed by persistently low inflation can be equally harmful. As its title promises, this ...
Annual Report

Report
Theory ahead of rhetoric: economic policy for a \\"new economy\\"

The most important theoretical developments in economics of the past 20 years undermine the notion that substantial benefits are to be had from policies aimed at smoothing what has come to be known as the ?business cycle.? These fine-tuning policies, moreover, may prove costly if their price is higher, unpredictable inflation. Although policymakers may have conquered the fine-tuning impulse, they have perpetuated the language that accompanies it. That is, the language of monetary policy has failed to keep pace with theory and practice. In a world where expectations matter, the language of ...
Annual Report

Report
Understanding the persistence of poverty

Millions of U.S. citizens continue to live in poverty within one of the wealthiest and most productive nations in the world. The Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland's 2006 Annual Report reviews some of the reasons for the persistence of poverty in America and suggests that better education and training may be the best defense against poverty.
Annual Report

Report
Rhetoric aligned with theory: talking productively about interest rates

If the recession that began in March 2001 has ended, as many believe, it will be hard to oppose the sentiment that the U.S. economy has navigated some fairly treacherous waters with minimal damage. To many, no doubt, the 475 basis point reduction in the federal funds rate engineered by the FOMC will be one of the heroes of the recovery?expansion story. Should we not, then, re-evaluate the position this Bank has taken in the past?that policymakers should keep their eyes on long-term objectives rather than reacting to perceived, short-term gaps between output and its ?potential??
Annual Report

Report
Beyond price stability: a reconsideration of monetary policy in a period of low inflation

Proposals for making price stability the Federal Reserve's primary monetary policy objective still deserve serious consideration and support, but perhaps this objective should be considered in a broader context than has been the case in recent years.
Annual Report

Report
Innovation, growth, and economic policy in an environment of change

In this report, we explore innovation as the engine of economic prosperity and argue that the greatest strength we possess is our ability to induce and embrace change, from the integration of new technologies to new peoples and cultures. Indeed, if we hope to remain an ongoing, vital player in the global economy, flexibility is likely to be our most valuable asset.
Annual Report

Report
Central banks and crisis management

As 2007 began, historians prepared to reflect on several anniversaries of financial turmoil. It had been 10 years since the East Asian crisis, 20 years since the Black Monday stock market crash, 100 years since the Panic of 1907, and 150 years since the Hamburg financial crisis of 1857. Not many, however, could have predicted that 2007 would write its own chapter in history with the subprime mortgage meltdown.
Annual Report

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