Understanding the persistence of poverty
Millions of U.S. citizens continue to live in poverty within one of the wealthiest and most productive nations in the world. The Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland's 2006 Annual Report reviews some of the reasons for the persistence of poverty in America and suggests that better education and training may be the best defense against poverty.
Federal Reserve policy promotes growth
A view of the relationship between monetary policy and the economy, reflecting the belief that maintaining price stability does not require high interest rates and less growth.
Central banks and crisis management
As 2007 began, historians prepared to reflect on several anniversaries of financial turmoil. It had been 10 years since the East Asian crisis, 20 years since the Black Monday stock market crash, 100 years since the Panic of 1907, and 150 years since the Hamburg financial crisis of 1857. Not many, however, could have predicted that 2007 would write its own chapter in history with the subprime mortgage meltdown.
Theory ahead of rhetoric: measurement and the “New Economy”
The annual report essay discusses the measurement system used to track U.S. economic activity, and why it is not yet up to the task of effectively measuring aspects of economic activity that contribute the most to long-term economic growth. For historical reasons, our measuring system has concentrated on expenditure and output; going forward, though, it will need to gauge the true economic values of land, labor, and capital more accurately. Contemporary theories about the business cycle and economic growth indicate that conventional methods of measuring these factors fall short of what we ...
The unfolding of the 1983 recovery
An examination of the 1983 economic expansion focusing on the effects of monetary policy and a discussion of the prospects for continued economic growth.
Maximum employment: what we know (and don’t know) about the labor market
Developing issues in the labor market are clouding the outlook for both the unemployment rate and the natural rate of unemployment over the next few years. Both rates at their current levels clearly argue for providing an accommodative monetary policy, as long as inflation remains consistent with the Federal Open Market Committee?s price stability objective. ; During the next few years, I expect that our economy will continue to grow, that unemployment will decline, and that inflation will average about 2 percent. Monetary policy will need to be adjusted in response to incoming data that may ...
Governments and money
A discussion of the history of attempts to protect the purchasing power of money, which contends that fostering competition among currencies may be the best way to generate economic growth through price stability.
Innovation, growth, and economic policy in an environment of change
In this report, we explore innovation as the engine of economic prosperity and argue that the greatest strength we possess is our ability to induce and embrace change, from the integration of new technologies to new peoples and cultures. Indeed, if we hope to remain an ongoing, vital player in the global economy, flexibility is likely to be our most valuable asset.
Breaking the housing crisis cycle
A plan for breaking the housing crisis cycle is emerging from the epicenter of the nation?s foreclosure meltdown. In its just-released annual report, the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland is calling for a multi-faceted approach that aims to address the interconnected problems that have led to too many Americans losing their homes and too many neighborhoods falling into disrepair.