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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland 

Getting to Accuracy: Measuring COVID-19 by Mortality Rates and Percentage Changes

Comparing the trajectory of the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States to that of other countries can provide important insights into how the virus is progressing in the United States and the effectiveness of our response. The quality of those insights depends on the data we choose to compare and how we conduct that comparison. This report argues that cumulative mortality rates and their percentage changes are the best available measures for comparing the trajectory of the epidemic in different countries. Based on these measures, the epidemic in the United States has a similar mortality rate ...
Cleveland Fed District Data Brief

A Speeding Rate Starts to Slow: COVID-19 Mortality Rates by State

The cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate of the United States has doubled or more each week between February 29, 2020 and April 12, 2020. Thankfully, doubling has stopped in several states as of April 12, 2020. One of these states, Louisiana, had the third-highest COVID-19 mortality rate in the country. In the Cleveland Fed’s District,1 the growth in mortality rates has continued to slow in Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia, but not in Pennsylvania. However, in most states mortality rates are still rising rapidly—mortality rates doubled or more between April 5, 2020 and April 12, 2020 in 37 ...
Cleveland Fed District Data Brief

How Much Help Do State and Local Governments Need? Updated Estimates of Revenue Losses from Pandemic Mitigation

I estimate that state and local governments have lost $141 billion of revenue from all sources in fiscal year 2020 (FY20) due to the COVID-19 mitigation shutdowns. Under three scenarios of increasing severity, I estimate that state and local governments will need to cut expenditures by between $59 billion and $350 billion in fiscal year 2021 (FY21) to offset impending loses of revenue. Some of the revenue losses can be offset by the rainy day funds that state and local governments have set aside during the expansion, but jurisdictions that lack a fiscal buffer may face painfully deep service ...
Cleveland Fed District Data Brief

Fourth District Business Response to COVID-19: Early Findings

The coronavirus outbreak has landed hard on economic activity in the Fourth Federal Reserve District. Businesses in the region, which encompasses Ohio, western Pennsylvania, eastern Kentucky, and the northern panhandle of West Virginia, are experiencing many challenges—a sharp pullback in demand, the need to furlough workers and shutter factories, and a cloud of uncertainty hanging over their outlooks for recovery.
Cleveland Fed District Data Brief

Journal Article
Personal bankruptcy: theory and evidence

An evaluation of the impact of the new bankruptcy code, effective in 1979, on the number of personal bankruptcy filings in the United States.
Economic Review , Issue Spr , Pages 1-29

Journal Article
The case for staggered-reserve accounting

An argument for an institutional reform to lengthen the reserve- accounting period from one week to four weeks and to stagger the reserve-accounting periods among four groups of banks. Such staggered- reserve accounting would allow the Federal Reserve to set operating targets for total reserves.
Economic Review , Issue Spr , Pages 30-36

Journal Article
A basic analysis of the new protectionism

A discussion of the costs associated with trade restraint, focusing on devices currently used or recently proposed in the United States.
Economic Review , Issue Win , Pages 2-19

Journal Article
Operational policies of multibank holding companies

Using a 1979 survey of the organizational structure of 65 bank holding companies in 12 states, the author investigates the relationship between holding company structure and the performance of bank subsidiaries.
Economic Review , Issue Win , Pages 20-31

Journal Article
Plant closings and worker dislocation

A study of plant-closing laws, analyzing whether they are effective labor market policy instruments.
Economic Review , Issue Fall , Pages 2-18

Journal Article
Prevailing wage laws, the Federal Reserve, and the Service Contract Act

A discussion of the labor-market consequences of the Service Contract Act on Federal Reserve System costs and operations as they pertain to group transportation services.
Economic Review , Issue Fall , Pages 19-28



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Carlstrom, Charles T. 98 items

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