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Bank:Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland 

Journal Article
Demographic differences in inflation expectations: what do they really mean?

It has often been reported that different demographic groups show persistent differences in their inflation expectations. Some reasonable explanations have been suggested, but most have failed to fully explain these apparent differences. We argue that the demographic differences have been overstated by using the mean to describe differences across demographic groups. When we use the median to describe inflation expectations, we find little meaningful difference across demographic groups.
Economic Commentary , Issue May

Journal Article
Employment growth, job creation, and job destruction in Ohio

Over the past several years, Ohio?s employment has grown much more slowly than the national average. If we look at patterns of job creation and destruction in the state, we can start to get a handle on why. In the late 1990s, not only was the rate of job creation sluggish relative to the nation, but the rate of job destruction climbed rapidly.
Economic Commentary , Issue Apr

Journal Article
Monetary policy and real economic growth

An examination of the connections between monetary policy changes, shifts in aggregate spending, and adjustments to production, showing that although a central bank may periodically exploit the connection between short-term monetary expansions and real economic growth, frequent attempts may ultimately distort the allocation of resources from productive uses to protective enterprises and result in proportionally higher inflation.
Economic Commentary , Issue Dec

Journal Article
Measuring total employment: are a few million workers important?

How can we measure total employment in the economy? The Bureau of Labor Statistics provides two different-and sometimes contradictory-measures of this key indicator. During the 1990s, the gap between the two measures has widened to more than five million workers. This Economic Commentary examines the current discrepancy between the two measures of employment and explores its significance in interpreting our economy's health.
Economic Commentary , Issue Jun

Conference Paper
Who should act as lender of last resort? an incomplete contracts model


Working Paper
Monetary policy in a financial crisis

What are the economic effects of an interest rate cut when an economy is in the midst of a financial crisis? Under what conditions will a cut stimulate output and employment, and raise welfare? Under which will it have the opposite effects? The authors answer these questions in a general class of open-economy models, modeling a financial crisis as a time when collateral constraints are suddenly binding. They find that when there are frictions in adjusting the level of output in the traded goods sector and the rate at which that output can be used in other parts of the economy, a cut in the ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 0204

Working Paper
Home production meets time-to-build

An innovation in this paper is to introduce a time-to-build technology for the production of market capital into a model with home production. The paper?s main finding is that the two anomalies that have plagued all household production models?the positive correlation between business and household investment, and household investment leading business investment over the business cycle?are resolved when time-to-build is added.
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 0007R

Journal Article
Foreclosure-related vacancy rates

The national foreclosure crisis has caused there to be millions more vacancies in our housing stock than before. Vacant homes lower their community?s property values and quality of life. Neighbors and public officials know foreclosed homes sit empty for months, but precise measures of foreclosure-related vacancy are rare. Using data from Cuyahoga County, Ohio, I trace the rise and fall in the vacancy rates of homes during the 18 months following their foreclosure. Ominously, the data suggest that foreclosure may permanently scar some homes. Foreclosed homes still have higher vacancy rates ...
Economic Commentary , Issue July

Journal Article
New Rules for Credit Default Swap Trading: Can We Now Follow the Risk?

Credit default swaps, a useful but complex financial innovation of the 1990s, were traded over the counter before the financial crisis. Because of this infrastructure, a very opaque market emerged?and from it, the severe risk imbalances that helped fuel the crisis. Reforms are now being worked out and put in place which will move the majority of credit default swaps transactions to more transparent exchanges. Market participants will be able to see pre-trade and posttrade pricing, and regulators will have access to information that will allow them to monitor risk concentrations as they ...
Economic Commentary , Issue June

Journal Article
Income Inequality Matters, but Mobility Is Just as Important

Concerns about rising income inequality are based on comparing income distributions over time. It is important to remember that such distributions are snapshots of a single year, and that the same households do not necessarily appear year after year in the same quintile of the distribution. Paying attention to mobility, as well as inequality, gives us a richer picture of the income possibilities for households over time. We document changes in a measure of income mobility over the past 40 years, a period in which income inequality has increased. We find a modest level of movement through the ...
Economic Commentary , Issue June



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Carlstrom, Charles T. 98 items

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