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The Many Lives of Federal Job Training
Federal job training programs have long enjoyed bipartisan support. Yet their emphasis has varied greatly across the years. At times, they have been advocated primarily as a means of helping workers displaced by automation or international trade. At other times, the focus has been on creating opportunities for those from disadvantaged backgrounds. More recently, they have gained attention as a possible remedy for a perceived "skills mismatch" that many observers see reflected in record high job vacancy rates.
Workforce development and reinvention in the Rochester economy
Remarks before the Rochester Business Alliance, Rochester, New York.
Benefits Cliffs and the Financial Incentives for Career Advancement: A Case Study of the Health Care Services Career Pathway
Benefits cliffs, which occur when earnings gains are offset by the loss of public benefits, have long been recognized to create financial disincentives for low-income individuals to earn more income. In this paper, the authors develop a new methodology to study benefits cliffs in the context of career advancement. The authors illustrate the change in net financial resources for an individual pursuing the health care services career pathway from certified nursing assistant (CNA) to licensed practical nurse (LPN) to registered nurse (RN). Accounting for increases in taxes and the loss of public ...
Job Training Mismatch and the COVID-19 Recovery: A Cautionary Note from the Great Recession
Displaced workers have been shown to endure persistent losses years beyond their initial job separation events. These losses are especially amplified during recessions. (1) One explanation for greater persistence in downturns relative to booms, is that firms and industries on the margin of structural change permanently shift the types of tasks and occupations demanded after a large negative shock (Aghion et al. (2005)), but these new occupations do not match the stock of human capital held by those currently displaced. In response to COVID-19, firms with products and services that complement ...
What Works at Scale? A Framework to Scale Up Workforce Development Programs
Workforce development policymakers have access to a growing catalog of training programs evaluated with rigorous randomized controlled trials. This evidence base identifies programs that work in specific geographic and temporal contexts but may not necessarily work in other contexts or at a scale sufficient to meet regional workforce needs. The author examines a sample of recent randomized controlled trials of workforce development programs and reports to what extent this body of evidence informs policymakers about what works at scale. The author finds that most programs are implemented at a ...
What Makes Cities Resilient?
How older industrial cities can become resilient cities was the focus of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia?s fifth biennial Reinventing Older Communities conference, which was attended by over 430 community development leaders from nonprofits, banks, foundations, government agencies, and businesses from 24 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and Canada.
Young adults are disconnected from work and school due to long-term labor force trends
The sharp rise during the pandemic in young people who are neither in school nor working—often referred to as “opportunity youth”—is the exacerbation of a problem that has gradually worsened in the past two decades.
Demographic disparities among disconnected young adults persist but are narrowing over time
This article sheds light on how several demographic groups have differed in their response to business cycles over time and how their disconnection rates have changed in recent years.
Did expanded Child Tax Credit enable parents in financially vulnerable households to work during pandemic?
Social scientists have found in some instances that safety-net programs sometimes reduce recipients’ incentive to work and thereby provide a headwind to U.S. economic growth.
Welcoming remarks at the Investing in America's Workforce Book Launch Event, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, New York City
Remarks at the Investing in America's Workforce Book Launch Event, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, New York City.