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Discussion Paper
How Did China’s COVID-19 Shutdown Affect U.S. Supply Chains?

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on trade between the United States and China so far. As workers became sick or were quarantined, factories temporarily closed, disrupting international supply chains. At the same time, the trade relationship between the United States and China has been characterized by rising protectionism and heightened trade policy uncertainty over the last few years. Against this background, this post examines how the recent period of economic disruptions in China has affected U.S. imports and discusses how this episode might impact firms’ supply chains ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20200512

Mexico seeks to solidify rank as top U.S. trade partner, push further past China

Mexico's emergence followed fractious U.S. relations with China, which had moved past Canada to claim the top trading spot in 2014. The dynamic changed in 2018 when the U.S. imposed tariffs on China’s goods and with subsequent pandemic-era supply-chain disruptions that altered international trade and investment flows worldwide.
Dallas Fed Economics

Immigrant Workers and U.S. Trade Activity

States with higher shares of immigrant workers in the manufacturing sector are more likely to trade more in manufactured goods.
On the Economy

Trade, Specialization, Property Rights and Wealth Inequality: A Conference Recap

Economists from the Richmond Fed, research universities and other institutions met in Richmond for a conference in September focused on insights from macroeconomic development. Researchers presented on the topics of trade, firm specialization, property rights and wealth inequality. This Economic Brief summarizes those presentations.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Volume 22 , Issue 42

Journal Article
Technology Transfer and Regional Trade Agreements

The growing importance of intellectual property rights in regional trade agreements has been associated with increased technology transfer.
Economic Synopses , Issue 23 , Pages 1-2

Discussion Paper
What Happened to the U.S. Deficit with China during the U.S.-China Trade Conflict?

The United States’ trade deficit with China narrowed significantly following the imposition of additional tariffs on imports from China in multiple waves beginning in 2018—or at least it did based on U.S. trade data. Chinese data tell a much different story, with the bilateral deficit rising nearly to historical highs at the end of 2020. What’s going on here? We find that (as also discussed in a related note) much of the decline in the deficit recorded in U.S. data was driven by successful efforts to evade U.S. tariffs, with an estimated $10 billion loss in tariff revenues in 2020.
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20210621b

Import competition and household debt

We analyze the effect of import competition on household balance sheets from 2000 to 2007 using individual data on consumer finances. We exploit variation in exposure to foreign competition using industry-level shipping costs and initial differences in regions? industry specialization. We show that household debt increased significantly in regions where manufacturing industries are more exposed to import competition. A one standard deviation increase in exposure to import competition explains 30 percent of the cross-regional variation in household leverage growth, and is mostly driven by home ...
Staff Reports , Paper 821

Discussion Paper
Did Trade Finance Contribute to the Global Trade Collapse?

The financial crisis of 2008-09 brought about one of the largest collapses in world trade since the end of World War II. Between the first quarter of 2008 and the first quarter of 2009, the value of real global GDP fell 4.6 percent while exports plummeted 17 percent, as can be seen in the chart below. The dramatic decline in world trade—a loss of $761 billion in nominal exports—came through two channels: decreased demand for imports and supply effects, most likely arising from financial constraints. In this post, we look at evidence that supply effects, including curtailed funding for ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20110629

Working Paper
The Global Diffusion of Ideas

We provide a tractable theory of innovation and technology diffusion to explore the role of international trade in the process of development. We model innovation and diffusion as a process involving the combination of new ideas with insights from other industries or countries. We provide conditions under which each country's equilibrium frontier of knowledge converges to a Frechet distribution, and derive a system of differential equations describing the evolution of the scale parameters of these distributions, i.e., countries' stocks of knowledge. In particular, the growth of a country's ...
Working Paper Series , Paper WP-2016-13

U.S. Economic Outlook

Remarks by Michael H. Moskow President and Chief Executive Officer Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. Jewish United Fund Luncheon - The Standard Club - 320 S. Plymouth Ct. Chicago, IL. March 7, 2007.
Speech , Paper 9


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