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Why Renegotiating NAFTA Could Disrupt Supply Chains
Supply chains have become increasingly interlinked across the U.S.-Mexico border. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), allowing tariff-free commerce between the United States, Canada, and Mexico, has facilitated this integration. Some critics of NAFTA are concerned about the bilateral trade deficit and have proposed stricter rules of origin (ROO), which would make it more cumbersome for firms to access the zero tariff rates they are entitled to with NAFTA. We argue that measures that make it costlier for U.S. firms to import will also hurt U.S. exports because much of U.S.-Mexican ...
How Did China’s COVID-19 Shutdown Affect U.S. Supply Chains?
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on trade between the United States and China so far. As workers became sick or were quarantined, factories temporarily closed, disrupting international supply chains. At the same time, the trade relationship between the United States and China has been characterized by rising protectionism and heightened trade policy uncertainty over the last few years. Against this background, this post examines how the recent period of economic disruptions in China has affected U.S. imports and discusses how this episode might impact firms’ supply chains ...
The Surprisingly Swift Decline of U.S. Manufacturing Employment
This paper finds a link between the sharp drop in U.S. manufacturing employment beginning in 2001 and a change in U.S. trade policy that eliminated potential tariff increases on Chinese imports. Industries where the threat of tariff hikes declines the most experience more severe employment losses along with larger increases in the value of imports from China and the number of firms engaged in China-U.S. trade. These results are robust to other potential explanations of the employment loss, and we show that the U.S. employment trends differ from those in the E.U., where there was no change in ...
Pirates without Borders: The Propagation of Cyberattacks through Firms’ Supply Chains
We document the propagation eﬀects through supply chains of the most damaging cyberattack in history and the important role of banks in mitigating its impact. Customers of directly hit ﬁrms saw reductions in revenues, proﬁtability, and trade credit relative to similar ﬁrms. The losses were larger for customers with fewer alternative suppliers and suppliers producing high-speciﬁcity inputs. Internal liquidity buﬀers and increased borrowing, mainly through bank credit lines at higher rates due to increased risk, helped aﬀected customers to maintain investment and employment. ...