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On the welfare properties of fractional reserve banking
Supersedes Working Paper 13-32/R. Monetary economists have long recognized a tension between the benefits of fractional reserve banking, such as the ability to undertake more profitable (long-term) investment opportunities, and the difficulties associated with it, such as the risk of in-solvency for each bank and the associated losses to bank liability holders. I show that a specific banking arrangement (a joint-liability scheme) provides an effective mechanism for ensuring the ex-post transfer of reserves from liquid banks to illiquid banks, so it is possible to select a socially efficient ...
ECB monetary operations and the interbank repo market
We examine the relationship between monetary policy operations and interbank borrowing and lending of funds using sovereign bonds as collateral. We first establish that, in the precrisis period, there are important but rather weak relations between these funding sources and that this relationship varies within maintenance periods and at the end of the year. Official funding conditions did not meaningfully constrain repo market activity in the 2003-05 period but, in the immediate precrisis period, rate increases led to a sharp contraction in repo activity. Focusing on the crisis period, we ...