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Keywords:regulation OR Regulation 

Working Paper
Banks' search for yield in the low interest rate environment: a tale of regulatory adaptation

This paper examines whether the low interest rate environment that has prevailed since the Great Recession has compelled banks to reach for yield. It is important to recognize that banks can take on a variety of risks that offer higher yields today but incur different forms of future losses. Some losses, such as mark-to-market losses due to yield increases, can be avoided with accounting treatments whereas others, chiefly credit losses, cannot. A simple model shows that a bank?s incentive to take on risks for which potential future losses can be managed, such as interest rate risk, is ...
Working Papers , Paper 17-3

Working Paper
The Impact of Regulatory Stress Tests on Bank Lending and Its Macroeconomic Consequences

We use an expansive regulatory loan-level data set to analyze how the portfolios of the largest US banks have changed in response to the Dodd-Frank Act Stress Test (DFAST) requirements. We find that the portfolios of the largest banks, which are subject to stress-testing, have become more similar to each other since DFAST was implemented in 2011. We also find that banks with poor stress-test results tend to adjust their portfolios in a way that makes them more similar to the portfolios of banks that performed well in the stress-testing. In general, stress-testing has resulted in more ...
Working Papers , Paper 20-12

Journal Article
Who regulates a certain bank or thrift?

Four federal agencies conduct CRA examinations and enforce CRA regulations. They are the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. and Office of Thrift Supervision.
e-Perspectives , Issue 3

Working Paper
Embedded Supervision: How to Build Regulation into Blockchain Finance

The spread of distributed ledger technology (DLT) in finance could help to improve the efficiency and quality of supervision. This paper makes the case for embedded supervision, i.e., a regulatory framework that provides for compliance in tokenized markets to be automatically monitored by reading the market?s ledger, thus reducing the need for firms to actively collect, verify and deliver data. After sketching out a design for such schemes, the paper explores the conditions under which distributed ledger data might be used to monitor compliance. To this end, a decentralized market is modelled ...
Globalization Institute Working Papers , Paper 371

Working Paper
Efficient bailouts?

This paper develops a non-linear DSGE model to assess the interaction between ex-post interventions in credit markets and the build-up of risk ex ante. During a systemic crisis, bailouts relax balance sheet constraints and mitigate the severity of the recession. Ex ante, the anticipation of such bailouts leads to an increase in risk-taking, making the economy more vulnerable to a financial crisis. The optimal policy requires, in general, a mix of ex-post intervention and ex-ante prudential policy. We also analyze the effects of bailouts on financial stability and welfare in the absence of ...
Globalization Institute Working Papers , Paper 133

Speech
Perspectives on the Economic Outlook and Banking Supervision and Regulation; 2017-08-02; The Community Bankers Association of Ohio Annual Convention, Cincinnati, OH

Today, I enjoy the fruits of the strong relationship that has developed between Ohio bankers and the Cleveland Fed. The bankers who serve on our Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council (CDIAC) and on our board of directors generously provide me with their valuable insights into regional economic and banking conditions. As you all know, community banks play a vital role in the economic health of their communities, providing creditworthy businesses the wherewithal to prosper and households the ability to improve their financial standing and quality of life. Because of their important ...
Speech , Paper 85

Speech
Guiding Principles for Financial Regulation; Panel Remarks at \"The Future of Global Finance: Populism, Technology, and Regulation\" Conference, Columbia University, New York, NY

At times, the regulatory framework that has arisen since the global financial crisis can seem like the game of fizzbin (appeared in the original Star Trek TV Show) ? very complicated, seemingly without rationale, and constantly changing. In such an environment, sometimes it helps to take a step back and focus on some underlying principles that should serve as a foundation for any financial regulatory framework, and that can help guide any potential changes to strengthen the framework and promote cross-country harmonization.
Speech , Paper 87

Working Paper
Mortgage companies and regulatory arbitrage

Mortgage companies (MCs) originated about 60% of all mortgages before the 2007 crisis and continue to hold a 30% market share postcrisis. While financial regulations are strictly enforced for depository institutions (banks), they are weakly enforced for MCs even if they are subsidiaries of a bank holding company (BHC). This study documents that the resulting regulatory arbitrage creates incentives for BHCs to engage in risk shifting through their MC affiliates. We show that MCs are established to circumvent the capital requirements and to shield the parent BHCs from loan-related losses. BHCs ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 1220R

Working Paper
Policy in adaptive financial markets—the use of systemic risk early warning tools

How can a systemic risk early warning system (EWS) facilitate the financial stability work of policymakers? In the context of evolving financial market dynamics and limitations of microprudential policy, this study examines new directions for financial macroprudential policy. A flexible macroprudential approach is anchored in strategic capacities of systemic risk EWSs. Tactically, macroprudential applications are founded on information about the level, structure, and institutional drivers of systemic financial stress and aim to manage the financial system risk and imbalances in two ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 1309

Working Paper
The Impact of Stricter Merger Control on Bank Mergers and Acquisitions. Too-Big-To-Fail and Competition

The effect of regulations on the banking sector is a key question for financial intermediation. This paper provides evidence that merger control regulation, although not directly targeted at the banking sector, has substantial economic effects on bank mergers. Based on an extensive sample of European countries, we show that target announcement premia increased by up to 16 percentage points for mergers involving control shifts after changes in merger legislation, consistent with a market expectation of increased profitability. These effects go hand-in-hand with a reduction in the propensity ...
Working Papers , Paper 201614R2

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