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Working Paper
Price setting in online markets: does IT click?

Using a unique dataset of daily U.S. and U.K. price listings and the associated number of clicks for precisely defined goods from a major shopping platform, this paper explores how prices are set in online markets, which have a number of special properties such as low search costs, low costs of monitoring competitors' prices, and low costs of nominal price adjustment. High-quality data are not only useful to estimate price rigidity and other properties of price adjustment in online commerce but also allow comparing the behavior of those properties with estimates available from ...
Working Papers , Paper 15-1

The Pandemic's Impact on Municipal Bonds

Higher state and local expenditures related to COVID-19, a delayed tax-filing deadline and a lack of liquidity roiled the muni bond market in the early months of the pandemic.
On the Economy

Discussion Paper
Does the Rise in Housing Prices Suggest a Housing Bubble?

House prices have risen rapidly during the pandemic, increasing even faster than the pace set before the 2007 financial crisis and subsequent recession. Is there a risk that another dangerous housing bubble is developing? This is a complicated question, and the answer has many components. This post, the first of two, provides a more detailed look at the recent rise in home prices by breaking it down geographically, with a comparison to the pre-2007 bubble. The second post looks at the potential risks to financial stability by comparing the currently outstanding stock of mortgage debt to the ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20210908a

Working Paper
The local aggregate effects of minimum wage increases

This paper examines the effect of minimum wage changes on local aggregate inflation and consumption growth. The paper utilizes variation in state-level minimum wages across locations and finds that minimum wage increases have a relatively modest effect on both city-level inflation and spending growth over the years following the change. The most noticeable effects are for food consumed at home and away from home?industries that typically employ a large share of low-wage and minimum-wage workers. Interestingly, consumers adjust their real food consumption when minimum wages rise, suggesting ...
Working Papers , Paper 17-8

Journal Article
Crude oil export ban benefits some … but not all

Lifting the U.S. ban on crude oil exports would alleviate a growing glut of oil at the Gulf Coast refineries and should eventually reduce retail gasoline and diesel prices, benefiting U.S. consumers.
Economic Letter , Volume 9 , Issue 7 , Pages 1-4

Firm-to-Firm Relationships and the Pass-Through of Shocks: Theory and Evidence

Economists have long suspected that firm-to-firm relationships might lower the responsiveness of prices to shocks due to the use of fixed-price contracts. Using transaction-level U.S. import data, I show that the pass-through of exchange rate shocks in fact rises as a relationship grows older. Based on novel stylized facts about a relationship?s life cycle, I develop a model of relationship dynamics in which a buyer-seller pair accumulates relationship capital to lower production costs under limited commitment. The structurally estimated model generates countercyclical markups and ...
Staff Reports , Paper 896

Journal Article
Regional Gasoline Price Dynamics

A large literature has argued that gasoline prices respond more rapidly to increases in oil prices than to decreases in oil prices. Moreover, some of this literature has found heterogeneous asymmetry in gas price responses across cities. Here, we reconsider the causes of heterogeneous asymmetric pass-through. Consistent with the previous literature, we find heterogeneity in the magnitudes of asymmetric pass-through across cities. We also find a large number of cities that exhibit no asymmetries. We then examine whether heterogeneous asymmetry results from city-level differences in (i) the ...
Review , Volume 103 , Issue 3 , Pages 289-314

Working Paper
150 years of boom and bust: what drives mineral commodity prices?

My paper provides long-run evidence on the dynamic effects of supply and demand shocks on mineral commodity prices. I assemble and analyze a new data set of price and production levels of copper, lead, tin, and zinc from 1840 to 2010. Price fluctuations are primarily driven by demand rather than supply shocks. Demand shocks affect the price persistently for up to five-teen years, whereas the effect of mineral supply shocks persists for a maximum of five years. My paper shows that price surges caused by rapid industrialization are a recurrent phenomenon throughout history. Mineral commodity ...
Working Papers , Paper 1414

Recent Inflation Developments and Challenges for Research and Monetary Policymaking : The 47th Konstanz Seminar on Monetary Theory and Monetary Policy, Insel Reichenau, Germany 5-12-2016

It seems clear to me that if there is one topic that would benefit from better understanding the interplay of theory and policy, it is inflation. For a monetary policymaker, price stability is the Holy Grail ? price stability is the one thing that monetary policy can ensure over the longer run, and monetary policy is the only tool that can ensure price stability over the longer run. The benefits of price stability for the economy are clear.2 Stable prices mean businesses and households don?t have to spend time trying to protect the purchasing power of their money; they can make long-term ...
Speech , Paper 71

International shocks and domestic prices: how large are strategic complementarities?

How strong are strategic complementarities in price setting across firms? In this paper, we provide a direct empirical estimate of firms? price responses to changes in prices of their competitors. We develop a general framework and an empirical identification strategy to estimate the elasticities of a firm?s price response both to its own cost shocks and to the price changes of its competitors. Our approach takes advantage of a new micro-level data set for the Belgian manufacturing sector, which contains detailed information on firm domestic prices, marginal costs, and competitor prices. The ...
Staff Reports , Paper 771



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