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A Dynamic Model of Intermediated Consumer Credit and Liquidity
We construct a model of consumer credit with payment frictions, such as spatial separation and unsynchronized trading patterns, to study optimal monetary policy across different interbank market structures. In our framework, intermediaries play an essential role in the functioning of the payment system, and monetary policy influences the equilibrium allocation through the interest rate on reserves. If interbank credit markets are incomplete, then monetary policy plays a crucial role in the smooth operation of the payment system. Specifically, an equilibrium in which privately issued debt ...
Two-sided Market, R&D and Payments System Evolution
It takes many years for more efficient electronic payments to be widely used, and the fees that merchants (consumers) pay for using those services are increasing (decreasing) over time. We address these puzzles by studying payments system evolution with a dynamic model in a two-sided market setting. We calibrate the model to the U.S. payment card data, and conduct welfare and policy analysis. Our analysis shows that the market power of electronic payment networks plays important roles in explaining the slow adoption and asymmetric price changes, and the welfare impact of regulations may vary ...
Modernizing Our Payments System; Fourth Annual Financial Literacy Day: Understanding Global Markets and Finance
The Federal Reserve System plays an important role in helping to ensure that our payments system is efficient, secure, and effective. I recently became chair of the Financial Services Policy Committee (FSPC), which oversees the provision of payment services to depository institutions and the U.S. Treasury by the 12 Federal Reserve Banks. So as a follow-up to the discussion we just heard about new forms of payments, I thought it would be useful to provide you with an update on some of the Fed’s ongoing work to modernize the U.S. payments system, and then offer a policy maker’s perspectives ...
Tokens vs. Accounts: Why the Distinction Still Matters
Computer science experts may say the difference is irrelevant in the digital world. But when it comes to payments, distinguishing the two still has value in the real world.