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Keywords:models 

Working Paper
Understanding Models and Model Bias with Gaussian Processes

Despite growing interest in the use of complex models, such as machine learning (ML) models, for credit underwriting, ML models are difficult to interpret, and it is possible for them to learn relationships that yield de facto discrimination. How can we understand the behavior and potential biases of these models, especially if our access to the underlying model is limited? We argue that counterfactual reasoning is ideal for interpreting model behavior, and that Gaussian processes (GP) can provide approximate counterfactual reasoning while also incorporating uncertainty in the underlying ...
Regional Research Working Paper , Paper RWP 23-07

Working Paper
Understanding Models and Model Bias with Gaussian Processes

Despite growing interest in the use of complex models, such as machine learning (ML) models, for credit underwriting, ML models are difficult to interpret, and it is possible for them to learn relationships that yield de facto discrimination. How can we understand the behavior and potential biases of these models, especially if our access to the underlying model is limited? We argue that counterfactual reasoning is ideal for interpreting model behavior, and that Gaussian processes (GP) can provide approximate counterfactual reasoning while also incorporating uncertainty in the underlying ...
Research Working Paper , Paper RWP 23-07

Journal Article
Recession Probabilities

Statistical models that estimate 12-month-ahead recession probabilities using the term spread have been around for many years. However, the reliability of the term spread as a predictor may have been affected by short-term interest rates being at zero. At the zero lower bound, long-term yields cannot go too far into negative territory due to the portfolio constraints of institutional investors. Therefore, the yield curve may not invert when it should or as much as it should despite the anticipated path of the economy. I enhance the simple model with two variables that should have predictive ...
Economic Commentary , Issue August

Working Paper
Large Vector Autoregressions with Stochastic Volatility and Flexible Priors

Recent research has shown that a reliable vector autoregressive model (VAR) for forecasting and structural analysis of macroeconomic data requires a large set of variables and modeling time variation in their volatilities. Yet, there are no papers jointly allowing for stochastic volatilities and large datasets, due to computational complexity. Moreover, homoskedastic VAR models for large datasets so far restrict substantially the allowed prior distributions on the parameters. In this paper we propose a new Bayesian estimation procedure for (possibly very large) VARs featuring time varying ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 1617

Journal Article
The Likelihood of 2 Percent Inflation in the Next Three Years

This Commentary examines inflation forecasts generated from a range of statistical models that historically have performed well at forecasting inflation. For each model, we look at the most likely future forecast path and the distribution of forecasts around that path. We show that the models project generally rising inflation, but, in contrast to other forecasts, five out of six models assign a less than 50 percent probability to inflation?s being 2 percent or higher over the next three years.
Economic Commentary , Issue November

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