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Keywords:income inequality 

Journal Article
The Allocation of Immigrant Talent Across Countries

Immigrants are not only overrepresented in lower-paying jobs but are also paid less on average than native counterparts.
Economic Synopses , Issue 2 , Pages 3 pages

Discussion Paper
Credit, Income, and Inequality

Access to credit plays a central role in shaping economic opportunities of households and businesses. Access to credit also plays a crucial role in helping an economy successfully exit from the pandemic doldrums. The ability to get a loan may allow individuals to purchase a home, invest in education and training, or start and then expand a business. Hence access to credit has important implications for upward mobility and potentially also for inequality. Adverse selection and moral hazard problems due to asymmetric information between lenders and borrowers affect credit availability. Because ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20210701

Journal Article
Shifting Dynamics in Eighth District Cities

From 2017 to 2018, the cities of St. Louis, Little Rock, Louisville and Memphis had better commute times and cheaper housing but higher income inequality and lower median household incomes.

Income Inequality and Job Creation

We propose a novel channel through which rising income inequality affects job creation and macroeconomic outcomes. High-income households save relatively more in stocks and bonds but less in bank deposits. A rising top income share thereby increases the relative financing costs for bank-dependent firms, which in turn create fewer jobs. Exploiting variation across U.S. states and an IV strategy, we provide evidence for the channel. Calibrating a general equilibrium model to our cross-regional estimates, we show that rising inequality increases the employment share of large firms, reduces the ...
Staff Reports , Paper 1021

Credit and Income Inequality

How does credit access for small business owners affect income inequality? A bank’s cutoff rule, employed in the decision to grant loans and based on applicants’ credit scores, provides us with the exogenous variation needed to answer this question. Analyzing uniquely detailed loan application data, we find that application acceptance increases recipients’ income five years later by more than 10 percent compared to denied applicants. This effect is mostly driven by upward mobility of poor individuals, especially if credit-constrained, thereby reducing income inequality among those who ...
Staff Reports , Paper 929

Income and Wealth Inequality

Income and wealth are becoming more unequal over time. The September 2022 issue of Page One Economics discusses how income and wealth inequality are measured, what drives differences among individuals and households, and how growing inequality may affect the overall economy.
Page One Economics Newsletter

Working Paper
Tax Progressivity, Economic Booms, and Trickle-Up Economics

We propose a method to decompose changes in the tax structure into orthogonal components measuring the level and progressivity of taxes. Similar to tax shocks found in the existing empirical literature, the level shock is contractionary. The tax progressivity shock is expansionary: Increasing tax progressivity raises (lowers) disposable income at the bottom (top) end of the income distribution by shifting the tax burden from the bottom to the top. If agents' marginal propensity to consume falls with income, the rise in consumption at the bottom more than compensates for the decline in ...
Working Papers , Paper 2019-034

Working Paper
The Rise and Fall of Consumption in the 2000s

U.S. consumption has gone through steep ups and downs since the turn of the millennium, but the causes of these fluctuations are still imperfectly identified. We quantify the relative impact on consumption growth of income, unemployment, house prices, credit scores, debt, expectations, foreclosures, inequality, and refinancings for four subperiods: the ?dot-com recession? (2001-2003), the ?subprime boom? (2004-2006), the Great Recession (2007-2009), and the ?tepid recovery? (2010-2012). We document that the explanatory power of different factors varies by subperiods, implying that a ...
Working Papers (Old Series) , Paper 1507

Journal Article
Historical Patterns around Financial Crises

Long-run historical data for advanced economies provide evidence to help policymakers understand specific conditions that typically lead up to financial crises. Recent research finds that rapid growth in the top income share and prolonged low labor productivity growth are robust predictors of crises. Moreover, if crises are preceded by these developments, then the subsequent recoveries are slower. This recent empirical evidence suggests that financial crises are not simply random events but are typically preceded by a prolonged buildup of macrofinancial imbalances.
FRBSF Economic Letter , Volume 2020 , Issue 10 , Pages 05

Journal Article
Capital Flow Surges and Rising Income Inequality

Surges of foreign investment into developing countries can amplify economic stress and potentially undermine their financial stability. New evidence suggests that excessive foreign capital inflows can also increase income inequality in emerging economies. Research shows that, as low global interest rates trigger more investment, those inflow surges benefit entrepreneurs by raising their returns, while lowering household earnings on bank deposits within the countries. The potential impact on income inequality provides another reason beyond financial stability for resisting abrupt surges in ...
FRBSF Economic Letter , Volume 2021 , Issue 09 , Pages 01-05


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