Assessing the evidence on neighborhood effects from Moving to Opportunity
This paper investigates the assumptions under which various parameters can be identified by the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing mobility experiment. Joint models of potential outcomes and selection into treatment are used to clarify the current interpretation of empirical evidence, distinguishing program effects from neighborhood effects. It is shown that MTO only identifi es a restricted subset of the neighborhood effects of interest, with empirical evidence presented that MTO does not identify effects from moving to high quality neighborhoods. One implication is that programs designed ...
Are Central Cities Poor and Non-White?
For much of the 20th century, America's central cities were viewed as synonymous with economic and social hardship, often used as proxy for low-income communities of color. Since the 1990s, however, many metropolitan areas have seen a resurgence of interest in central city neighborhoods. Theoretical models of income sorting lead to ambiguous predictions about where households of different income levels will live within metropolitan areas. In this paper, we explore intra-city spatial patterns of income and race for U.S. metropolitan areas, focusing particularly on the locations of low-income ...
This paper was presented at the conference "Policies to Promote Affordable Housing," cosponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and New York University's Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy, February 7, 2002. It was part of Session 3: The Impact of Housing on People and Places, and is a commentary on "The impacts of new neighborhoods on poor families: evaluating the policy implications of the moving to opportunity demonstration" by John Goering.
Neighborhood housing dervices of Chicago homeownership preservation iinitiative
On Wednesday, September 3, 2003, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago hosted a breakfast meeting at which Neighborhood Housing Services (NHS) of Chicago made a presentation on the progress of HOPI, the Home Ownership Preservation Initiative. HOPI, officially launched in April of 2003, is a partnership between the City of Chicago, NHS and key financial institutions who conduct business in Chicago, including General Motors Acceptance Corporation?Residential Funding Corporation (GMAC-RFC), Chase Manhattan Mortgage Corp., Bank One Corp., LaSalle Bank, Harris Trust and Savings Bank, Bank of America ...
Neighborhood dynamics and the distribution of opportunity
This paper uses an overlapping-generations dynamic general equilibrium model of residential sorting and intergenerational human capital accumulation to investigate effects of neighborhood externalities. In the model, households choose where to live and how much to invest toward the production of their child?s human capital. The return on the parent?s investment is determined in part by the child?s ability and in part by an externality from the average human capital in their neighborhood. We use the model to test a prominent hypothesis about the concentration of poverty within ...
Housing and economic recovery
Remarks by Eric S. Rosengren, President and Chief Executive Officer, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, at the Economic Outlook Seminar, Stockholm, Sweden, September 28, 2011
Housing recovery: how far have we come?
Four years into the economic recovery, housing markets have finally started to improve. While many indicators of activity indicate recent growth, comparing over time and across the United States suggests that many regional housing markets are looking better now only in comparison to where they were during the recession. The recovery in housing markets does appear to be gaining steam, but it remains a work in progress in many places.
Housing: how much help?
Though some programs that were created to promote homeownership in the United States, like Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, have been harshly criticized in the wake of the housing crisis, we are likely to continue to provide some form of taxpayer-funded assistance to those who would become homeowners. Historically, assistance has taken the form of either interest rate or down-payment subsidies, but recent research suggests that down-payment subsidies are much more effective. They create successful homeowners?homeowners who keep their homes?at a lower cost.