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Analyzing the Influence of Occupational Licensing Duration and Grandfathering on Labor Market Outcomes
The length of time from the implementation of an occupational licensing statute (i.e., licensing duration) may matter in influencing labor market outcomes. Adding to or raising the entry barriers are likely easier once an occupation is established and has gained influence in a political jurisdiction. States often enact grandfather clauses and ratchet up requirements that protect existing workers and increase entry costs to new entrants. We analyze the labor market influence of the duration of occupational licensing statutes for 13 major universally licensed occupations over a 75-year period. ...
Productivity, Taxes, and Hours Worked in Spain: 1970-2015
In the early 1970s, hours worked per working-age person in Spain were higher than in the United States. Starting in 1975, however, hours worked in Spain fell by 40 percent. We find that 80 percent of the decline in hours worked can be accounted for by the evolution of taxes in an otherwise standard neoclassical growth model. Although taxes play a crucial role, we cannot argue that taxes drive all of the movements in hours worked. In particular, the model underpredicts the large decrease in hours in 1975?1986 and the large increase in hours in 1994?2007. The lack of productivity growth in ...
How Has the COVID-19 Recession Affected U.S. Labor across Occupations and Industries?
COVID-19 hit the U.S. labor market hard, but relative changes in employment and hours worked vary across occupations and industries.