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Working Paper
Assessing Abenomics: Evidence from Inflation-Indexed Japanese Government Bonds

We assess the impact of news concerning the reforms associated with ?Abenomics? using an arbitrage-free term structure model of nominal and real yields. Our model explicitly accounts for the deflation protection enhancement embedded in Japanese inflation-indexed bonds issued since 2013, which pay their original nominal principal when deflation has occurred from issue to maturity. The value of this enhancement is sizable and time-varying, with substantive impacts on estimates of expected inflation compensation. After properly accounting for deflation protection, our results suggest that ...
Working Paper Series , Paper 2019-15

A Dollar’s Worth: Inflation Is Real

Understanding the reality of inflation can help consumers make decisions in personal finance. Learn more about inflation, how it’s measured, and how the inflation rate is calculated in the December 2021 issue of Page One Economics: Focus on Finance.
Page One Economics Newsletter

Working Paper

This paper explores a causal link between aging of the labor force and declining trends in the real interest rate and inflation in Japan. We develop a New Keynesian search/matching model that features heterogeneities in age and firm-specific skills. Using the model, we examine the long-run implications of the sharp drop in labor force entry in the 1970s. We show that the changes in the demographic structure induce significant low-frequency movements in per-capita consumption growth and the real interest rate. They also lead to similar movements in the inflation rate when the monetary policy ...
Working Papers , Paper 16-29

Discussion Paper
Crisis Chronicles: The Panic of 1819—America’s First Great Economic Crisis

As we noted in our last post on the British crisis of 1816, while Britain emerged from nearly a quarter century of war with France ready to supply the world with manufactured goods, it needed cotton to supply the mills, and all of Europe needed wheat to supplement a series of poor harvests. The United States met that demand for cotton and wheat by expanding agricultural production, facilitated by the loose credit policies of a growing number of lightly regulated state banks. Meanwhile, the Treasury needed revenue to pay off debts from the Louisiana Purchase and the War of 1812, so the ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20141205c

Working Paper
Banking panics and deflation in dynamic general equilibrium

This paper develops a framework to study the interaction between banking, price dynamics, and monetary policy. Deposit contracts are written in nominal terms: if prices unexpectedly fall, the real value of banks' existing obligations increases. Banks default, panics precipitate, economic activity declines. If banks default, aggregate demand for cash increases because financial intermediation provided by banks disappears. When money supply is unchanged, the price level drops, thereby providing incentives for banks to default. Active monetary policy prevents banks from failing and output from ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2015-18

Journal Article
Coronavirus and the Risk of Deflation

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 represents an unprecedented negative shock to the global economy that is likely to severely depress economic activity in the near term. Could the crisis also put substantial downward pressure on price inflation? One way to assess the potential risk to the inflation outlook is by analyzing prices of standard and inflation-indexed government bonds. The probability of declining price levels—or deflation—among four major countries within the next year indicates that the perceived risk remains muted, despite the recent economic turmoil.
FRBSF Economic Letter , Volume 2020 , Issue 11 , Pages 5

Working Paper
Why Aging Induces Deflation and Secular Stagnation

We provide a quantitative theory of deflation and secular stagnation. In our lifecycle framework, an aging population puts persistent downward pressure on the price level, real interest rates, and output. A novel feature of our theory is that it also recognizes the reactions of government policy. The central bank responds to falling prices by reducing its policy nominal interest rate, and the fiscal authority responds by allowing the public debt–gross domestic product ratio to rise.
FRB Atlanta Working Paper , Paper 2022-12

Working Paper
Trade linkages and the globalisation of inflation in Asia and the Pacific

Some observers argue that increased real integration has led to greater co-movement of prices internationally. We examine the evidence for cross-border price spillovers among economies participating in the pan-Asian cross-border production networks. Starting with country-level data, we find that both producer price and consumer price inflation rates move more closely together between those Asian economies that trade more with one another, ie that share a higher degree of trade intensity. Next, using a novel data set based on the World Input-Output Database (WIOD), we examine the importance of ...
Globalization Institute Working Papers , Paper 172

Deflationary shocks and monetary rules: an open-economy scenario analysis

The paper considers the macroeconomic transmission of demand and supply shocks in an open economy under alternative assumptions about whether the zero interest rate floor (ZIF) is binding. It uses a two-country general-equilibrium simulation model calibrated to the Japanese economy relative to the rest of the world. Negative demand shocks have more prolonged and conspicuous effects on the economy when the ZIF is binding than when it is not binding. Positive supply shocks can actually extend the period of time over which the ZIF may be expected to bind. Economies that are more open hit the ZIF ...
Staff Reports , Paper 267

The Curious Case of the Rise in Deflation Expectations

We study the behavior of U.S. consumers’ inflation expectations during the high inflation period of 2021-23 using data from the New York Fed’s Survey of Consumer Expectations. Inflation expectations rose and fell as inflation surged and then moderated, but with notable differences across forecast horizons. Inflation uncertainty and disagreement also rose markedly and then abated. Despite the sharp rise in inflation, we see a sizable increase in the left tail of the distribution of medium- and longer-term expectations and increased expectations of deflation. Using a pair of special ...
Staff Reports , Paper 1037


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