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Keywords:commercial real estate 

Commercial Real Estate Exposure and Bank Stock Returns

An analysis suggests that commercial real estate exposures may have been a relevant driver of bank holding company stock returns in 2023.
On the Economy

Journal Article
“Stress Testing” Banks on Commercial Real Estate

Recent research tests the effects of a large (hypothetical) drop in commercial real estate prices: Banks most affected would be small and the resulting noncompliance would apply to a small fraction of assets in the US banking system.
Economic Synopses , Issue 26 , Pages 3 pages

Economic Fragility: Implications for Recovery from the Pandemic

Clearly a deadly pandemic was bound to badly impact the economy. However, I am sorry to say that the slow build-up of risk in the low-interest-rate environment that preceded the current recession likely will make the economic recovery from the pandemic more difficult.

Understanding the Surge in Commercial Real Estate Lending

U.S. banks have increased their commercial real estate (CRE) lending significantly in the past five years. Economists and regulators note that some positive factors are driving this trend, but they also see potential risks. Analysts at the Richmond Fed have found that some banks could be especially vulnerable if economic conditions deteriorate. These include institutions that are in certain major urban areas and have high concentrations of CRE loans, rapid CRE loan growth, and heavy reliance on "noncore" (or illiquid) funding. But the analysts also conclude that, overall, banks' CRE exposures ...
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue August

Journal Article
Out of the Office, Into a Financial Crisis?

For decades, the office has offered an alternative to the manual labor that defined work for most of human history. But it came with its own set of headaches for workers.Those headaches have provided fuel for movies like Office Space and The Devil Wears Prada and TV shows like Severance and The Office. The COVID-19 pandemic gave many Americans the chance to live out their dreams of escaping their commutes and the annoyances of the modern workplace. In the initial months of the pandemic in 2020, most offices shut down. More than 60 percent of all paid full days were worked from home.
Econ Focus , Volume 23 , Issue 2Q , Pages 4-7

Commercial Real Estate Market Stress Poses a Challenge to Banks

Remote work, higher interest rates and other factors have made commercial real estate lending more challenging for banks, particularly community banks.
On the Economy

Journal Article
Why Do Net Interest Margins Behave Differently across Banks as Interest Rates Rise?

Rising interest rates can influence bank profitability positively (by increasing payments from those with floating-rate debt) or negatively (by forcing banks to offer higher returns to their depositors). Although most banks became more profitable as the Federal Reserve raised rates in 2022–23, a smaller group of banks saw consistent decreases in their net interest margins (NIMs). Understanding why these banks’ NIMs declined may provide useful insight to policymakers concerned with vulnerabilities in the banking system.Brendan Laliberte and Rajdeep Sengupta explore the differences in bank ...
Economic Review , Volume vol.109 , Issue no.1 , Pages 24

Working Paper
Debt Overhang and the Retail Apocalypse

Debt overhang is central for theories of capital structure, yet credible empirical estimates of its effects remain elusive. We study the consequences and mechanisms of debt overhang using exogenous changes in the leverage of commercial retail properties. Identification comes from changes in property values occurring after pre-determined debt rollover dates. We show that debt reduces profitability by impairing property owners' response to negative shocks, reducing the business activity of their remaining retail tenants. For the median property, a 10 percentage point leverage increase causes ...
International Finance Discussion Papers , Paper 1356

Journal Article
Flexibility and Conversions in New York City's Housing Stock: Building for an Era of Rapid Change

Post-COVID, New York City faces reduced demand for commercial space in its central business districts, even as residential demand is resurgent. Just as in past eras of New York’s history, conversion of commercial spaces into housing may help the city adapt to these new market conditions and provide an additional pathway for producing badly needed housing. If 10 percent of office and hotel spaces were converted to residential use, around 75,000 homes would be created, concentrated in Midtown Manhattan. However, there are considerable obstacles to such conversions, including a slew of ...
Economic Policy Review , Volume 29 , Issue 2 , Pages 53-74

Journal Article
Banks’ Commercial Real Estate Risks Are Uneven

Investors have been acutely attuned to commercial real estate (CRE) risks recently due to higher interest rates and changes in how Americans work. On the surface, these risks may seem particularly concerning for small and regional banks, which tend to hold large concentrations of loans backed by commercial properties. However, we show that CRE risks can vary substantially across property types and geographic locations, suggesting that aggregate CRE exposure may be a poor measure of risk.
Economic Bulletin


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