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Keywords:central banks 

Working Paper
Death of a Reserve Currency

The Dutch bank florin was the dominant currency in Europe during much of the 17th and 18th centuries. The florin, a fiat money, was managed by an early central bank, the Bank of Amsterdam. Using a new reconstruction of the Bank of Amsterdam's balance sheet, we analyze the florin's loss of reserve currency status during the period 1781?92. The reconstruction shows that by 1784, accommodative policies rendered the Bank of Amsterdam "policy insolvent," meaning that its net worth would have been negative under continuation of its policy objectives. Policy insolvency coincided with the Bank of ...
FRB Atlanta Working Paper , Paper 2014-17

Journal Article
Technological Change and Central Banking

The decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) represents a radically new way to manage databases. Since money and payments are all about managing databases and since banks play a central role in money and payments, DAO-based money and payments systems are potentially a disruptive force in the banking system—which includes central banks. One would normally expect regulatory frameworks to evolve with a changing technological landscape. However, the decentralized governance structure characteristic of DAOs renders it near impossible to regulate these entities directly—a property that makes ...
Review , Volume 106 , Issue 1 , Pages 1-9

Unleashing Hamilton’s Financial Revolution

The federal government’s assumption of Revolutionary War debt was part of what historians now describe as Hamilton’s financial revolution.
On the Economy

Working Paper
Early Public Banks

Publicly owned or commissioned banks were common in Europe from the 15th century. This survey argues that while the early public banks were characterized by great experimentation in their design, a common goal was to create a liquid and reliable monetary asset in environments where such assets were rare or unavailable. The success of these banks was, however, never guaranteed, and even well-run banks could become unstable over time as their success made them susceptible to fiscal exploitation. The popularization of bearer notes in the 18th century broadened the user base for the public banks' ...
FRB Atlanta Working Paper , Paper 2014-9

Journal Article
Central Banks and Climate Risks

Some researchers look at climate change and see economic uncertainty. Central banks are beginning to take notice
Econ Focus , Issue 2Q-3Q , Pages 8-13

Working Paper
Why Do We Need Both Liquidity Regulations and a Lender of Last Resort? A Perspective from Federal Reserve Lending during the 2007-09 U.S. Financial Crisis

During the 2007-09 financial crisis, there were severe reductions in the liquidity of financial markets, runs on the shadow banking system, and destabilizing defaults and near-defaults of major financial institutions. In response, the Federal Reserve, in its role as lender of last resort (LOLR), injected extraordinary amounts of liquidity. In the aftermath, lawmakers and regulators have taken steps to reduce the likelihood that such lending would be required in the future, including the introduction of liquidity regulations. These changes were motivated in part by the argument that central ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2015-11

Inflation: Four Questions Requiring Further Research to Inform Monetary Policy, Closing Remarks, Inflation: Drivers and Dynamics Conference 2023

Let me start by thanking the organizers at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland and the European Central Bank for putting together such a strong program and the ECB for its hospitality. It has been a very productive two days focused on frontier research on inflation. High inflation has been the major challenge facing many central banks over the past two years. Returning the economy to price stability in a sustainable and timely way has driven monetary policy decisions. Maintaining price stability is the responsibility of the central bank and only the central bank can deliver on this goal ...

Recent Global Developments and Central Bank Responsibilities in a Changing Risk Landscape

Remarks at the Official Sector Service Providers (OSSP)-Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM)-South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre Forum on Central Bank Foreign Currency Operations.

Working Paper
FOMC Responses to Calls for Transparency

I apply latent semantic analysis to Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) transcripts and minutes from 1976 to 2008 in order to analyze the Fed's responses to calls for transparency. Using a newly constructed measure of the transparency of deliberations, I study two events that define markedly different periods of transparency over this 32-year period. First, the 1978 Humphrey-Hawkins Act increased the degree to which the FOMC used meeting minutes to convey the content of its meetings. Historical evidence suggests that this increased transparency reflected a response to the Act's requirement ...
Finance and Economics Discussion Series , Paper 2015-60

Working Paper
An Early Experiment with \"Permazero\"

We investigate a monetary regime with persistent, near-zero policy interest rates ("permazero" in the terminology of Bullard 2015). This regime was implemented in 1683 by a prominent early central bank called the Bank of Amsterdam ("Bank"). The Bank fixed its policy rate at one-half percent and held it unchanged for more than a century. Maintaining the rate helped stabilize the value of Bank money. We employ archival data to reconstruct the Bank's activities during a portion of that interval (1736?91) for which data are most readily available. The data suggest that "permazero" worked ...
FRB Atlanta Working Paper , Paper 2017-5


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