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Keywords:central banks 

Working Paper
More Stories of Unconventional Monetary Policy

This article extends the work of Fawley and Neely (2013) to describe how major central banks have evolved unconventional monetary policies to encourage real activity and maintain stable inflation rates from 2013 through 2019. By 2013, central banks were moving from lump-sum asset purchase programs to continuing asset purchase programs, which are conditioned on economic conditions, careful communication strategies, bank lending programs with incentives and negative interest rates. This article reviews how central banks tailored their unconventional monetary methods to their various challenges ...
Working Papers , Paper 2020-043

Working Paper
Death of a Reserve Currency

The Dutch bank florin was the dominant currency in Europe during much of the 17th and 18th centuries. The florin, a fiat money, was managed by an early central bank, the Bank of Amsterdam. Using a new reconstruction of the Bank of Amsterdam's balance sheet, we analyze the florin's loss of reserve currency status during the period 1781?92. The reconstruction shows that by 1784, accommodative policies rendered the Bank of Amsterdam "policy insolvent," meaning that its net worth would have been negative under continuation of its policy objectives. Policy insolvency coincided with the Bank of ...
FRB Atlanta Working Paper , Paper 2014-17

Unleashing Hamilton’s Financial Revolution

The federal government’s assumption of Revolutionary War debt was part of what historians now describe as Hamilton’s financial revolution.
On the Economy

Journal Article
More Stories of Unconventional Monetary Policy

This article extends the work of Fawley and Neely (2013) to describe how major central banks have evolved unconventional monetary policies to encourage real activity and maintain stable inflation rates from 2013 through 2019. By 2013, central banks were moving from lump-sum asset purchase programs to open-ended asset purchase programs, which are conditioned on economic conditions, careful communication strategies, bank lending programs with incentives, and negative interest rates. This article reviews how central banks tailored their unconventional monetary methods to their various challenges ...
Review , Volume 103 , Issue 2 , Pages 207-270

Briefing
Does the Fed Have a Financial Stability Mandate?

Governments around the world have devoted increasing attention to maintaining overall financial system stability. Central banks play strong roles in domestic financial stability policy, but the full scopes of their financial stability mandates are ambiguous. The Federal Reserve appeared to embrace a stronger role in financial system stability starting in the late 1960s and accelerating with its unprecedented actions during the 2007?08 financial crisis. Questions remain, however, about the proper scope and design of a central bank?s financial stability mandate.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue June

Discussion Paper
Have the Fed Swap Lines Reduced Dollar Funding Strains during the COVID-19 Outbreak?

In March 2020, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) made changes to its swap line facilities with foreign central banks to enhance the provision of dollars to global funding markets. Because the dollar has important roles in international trade and financial markets, reducing these strains helps facilitate the supply of credit to households and businesses, both domestically and abroad. This post summarizes the changes made to central bank swap lines and shows when these changes were effective at bringing down dollar funding strains abroad.
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20200522

Speech
Considerations on the Road Ahead for Monetary Policy Implementation

Remarks at the New York Fed and Columbia SIPA Monetary Policy Implementation Workshop, New York City.
Speech

Speech
Global Issues, Global Implications

Remarks at the Central Reserve Bank of Peru (BCRP) Centenary Conference (delivered via videoconference).
Speech

Report
Segregated balance accounts

This paper describes segregated balance accounts (SBAs), a concept for a new type of account that could provide increased competition for deposits, reduce system-wide balance sheet costs, and improve the transmission of monetary policy by facilitating greater pass-through of interest on excess reserves (IOER). SBAs are designed to remove credit risk by creating narrow accounts that could allow any bank to compete for money market funds. Because of increased competition, the rates paid on borrowings secured by SBAs, along with other money market rates, would likely be pushed up closer to the ...
Staff Reports , Paper 730

Discussion Paper
The Turnaround in Private and Public Financial Outflows from China

China lends to the rest of the world because it saves much more than it needs to fund its high level of physical investment spending. For years, the public sector accounted for this lending through the Chinese central bank’s purchase of foreign assets, but this changed in 2015. The country still had substantial net financial outflows, but unlike in previous years, more private money was pouring out of China than was flowing in. This shift in private sector behavior forced the central bank to sell foreign assets so that the sum of net private and public outflows would equal the saving ...
Liberty Street Economics , Paper 20160509

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