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Keywords:appraisal 

Working Paper
The impact of the home valuation code of conduct on appraisal and mortgage outcomes

Superseded by Working Paper 15-28. During the housing crisis, it came to be recognized that inflated home mortgage appraisals were widespread during the subprime boom. The New York State Attorney General?s office investigated this issue with respect to one particular lender and Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The investigation resulted in an agreement between the Attorney General?s office, the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs), and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (the GSEs? federal regulator) in 2008, in which the GSEs agreed to adopt the Home Valuation Code of Conduct (HVCC). Using ...
Working Papers , Paper 14-23

Working Paper
Appraising Home Purchase Appraisals

Home appraisals are produced for millions of residential mortgage transactions each year, but appraised values are rarely below the purchase contract price: Some 30% of appraisals in our sample are exactly at the home price (with less than 10% of them below it). We lay out a basic theoretical framework to explain how appraisers? incentives within the institutional framework that governs mortgage lending lead to information loss in appraisals (that is, appraisals set equal to the contract price). Consistent with the theory, we observe a higher frequency of appraisal equal to contract price and ...
Working Papers , Paper 18-28

Working Paper
Appraising Home Purchase Appraisals

Home appraisals are produced for millions of residential mortgage transactions each year, but appraised values are rarely below the purchase contract price. We argue that institutional features of home mortgage lending cause much of the information in appraisals to be lost: some 30 percent of recent appraisals are exactly at the home price (with less than 10 percent below it). We lay out a novel, basic theoretical framework to explain how lenders? and appraisers? incentives lead to information loss in appraisals (that is, appraisals set equal to the contract price). Such information loss is ...
Working Papers , Paper 17-23

Working Paper
Information losses in home purchase appraisals

Home appraisals are produced for millions of residential mortgage transactions each year, but appraisals are rarely below the transaction price. We exploit a unique data set to show that the mortgage application process creates an incentive to substitute the transaction price for the true appraised value when the latter is lower. We relate the frequency of information loss (appraisals set equal to transaction price) to market conditions and other factors that plausibly determine the degree of distortion. Information loss in appraisals may increase the procyclicality of housing booms and busts.
Working Papers , Paper 15-11

Working Paper
The impact of the home valuation code of conduct on appraisal and mortgage outcomes

Supersedes Working Paper 14-23. The accuracy of appraisals came into scrutiny during the housing crisis, and a set of policies and regulations was adopted to address the conflict-of-interest issues in the appraisal practices. In response to an investigation by the New York State Attorney General?s office, the Home Valuation Code of Conduct (HVCC) was agreed to by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Using unique data sets that contain both approved and nonapproved mortgage applications, this study provides an empirical examination of the impact of the HVCC on ...
Working Papers , Paper 15-28

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