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Cashless Stores and Cash Users
The emergence of cashless stores has led several cities and states to ban such stores. This article investigates this issue by characterizing consumers who pay cash for in-person purchases and consumers who do not have credit or debit cards. Using a random utility model, I estimate 1.3 to 30.9 percentage drop in average per-payment consumer surplus if all stores were to become cashless and when utility is measured by the cost of making a payment, security, and convenience. The conclusion provides a discussion of alternatives to cash for in-person purchases that may be needed before all ...