Observations: bringing home the gold
High labor force participation by women is correlated with athletic prowess.
Comments on spinning the top: considering the impact of women's paid and unpaid work
We should acknowledge that discrimination still exists and that womens work lives have been considerably improved by their ability to legally challenge discriminatory practices.
Nonparametric estimation of the impact of taxes on female labor supply
Econometric models with nonlinear budgets sets frequently arise in the study of impact of taxation on labor supply. Blomquist and Newey (2002) have suggested a nonparametric method to estimate the uncompensated wage and income effects when the budget set is nonlinear. This paper extends their nonparametric estimation method to censored dependent variables. The modified method is applied to estimate female wage and income elasticities using the 1987 PSID. I find evidence of bias if the nonlinearity in the budget set is ignored. The median compensated elasticity is estimated at 1.19 (with a ...
Culture: an empirical investigation of beliefs, work, and fertility
We study the effect of culture on important economic outcomes by using the 1970 census to examine the work and fertility behavior of women born in the U.S. but whose parents were born elsewhere. We use past female labor force participation and total fertility rates from the country of ancestry as our cultural proxies. These variables should capture, in addition to past economic and institutional conditions, the beliefs commonly held about the role of women in society (i.e., culture). Given the different time and place, only the beliefs embodied in the cultural proxies should be potentially ...
Elimination of gender-related employment disparities through statistical process control
This paper proposes a novel approach that has the potential to hasten the eradication of gender disparities in employment. This approach relies upon the concept of statistical process control (SPC) to more systematically remedy disparate employment outcomes for women. SPC also serves as a new vehicle for conceptualizing the influence of industry on equal employment opportunity (EEO) outcomes. Using data from U.S. Current Population Surveys, we compare industries on EEO performance as assessed by a recently developed Systemic Gender Disparity Scorecard. The theory and practice of SPC suggest ...
Reaching the top: challenges and opportunities for women leaders
This special edition of the Regional Review is based on presentations made at Reaching the Top: Challenges and Opportunities for Women Leaders, a conference sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston on March 3, 2004.
Nature or nurture? learning and female labor force dynamics
In the last century, the evolution of female labor force participation has been S-shaped: It rose slowly at first, then quickly, and has leveled off recently. Central to this dramatic rise has been the entry of women with young children. We argue that this S-shaped dynamic came from generations of women learning about the relative importance of nature (endowed ability) and nurture (time spent child-rearing) in determining children's outcomes. Each generation updates the beliefs of their parents, by observing others' outcomes. When few women participate in the labor force, most outcomes are ...
Choices and changes: critical moments in careers and families
At critical moments in their careers, men and women make different choicesand those choices have consequences for the heights they ultimately attain.