The labor supply of married women: why does it differ across U.S. cities?
Using Census Public Use Micro Sample (PUMS) data for 1980, 1990 and 2000, this paper documents a little-noticed feature of U.S. labor markets that there is wide variation in the labor market participation rates and annual work hours of white married women across urban areas. This variation is also large among sub-groups, including women with children and those with different levels of education. Among the explanations for this variation one emerges as particularly important: married women's labor force participation decisions appear to be very responsive to commuting times. There is a strong ...
Observations: bringing home the gold
High labor force participation by women is correlated with athletic prowess.
Women's rise: a work in progress
Recent data show declines in labor force participation for highly educated women, but the causes of these changes are not easy to identify.
Is there still an added-worker effect?
Using matched March Current Population Surveys, we examine labor market transitions of husbands and wives. We find that the ?added-worker effect??the greater propensity of nonparticipating wives to enter the labor force when their husbands exit employment?is still important among a subset of couples, but that the overall value of marriage as a risk-sharing arrangement has diminished because of the greater positive co-movement of employment within couples. While positive assortative matching on education did increase over time, this shift in the composition of couple types alone cannot account ...
Women's contribution to productivity
Women's work on the job and at home has been key to increasing productivity growth.
Spinning the top: gender, games and macro outcomes
Women may have different norms and preferences than men because we have had different responsibilities. Gender differences may be based to some extent in biology as well as culture. Yet we have attained the power to change both biology and culture, along with the very meaning of femininity. I believe that we have changed that meaning, for the most part, in positive ways. But I also believe that we have entered a Prisoner?s Dilemma game in which we are offered a choice between adopting traditionally masculine priorities and being denied access ?to the top.? If we focus too narrowly on the ...
Why are married women working more? Some macroeconomic explanations.
What accounts for the sharp increase in the number of hours worked by married women? Although the number of hours worked per person in the U.S. has changed very little over the past 60 years, the labor force has undergone some pronounced shifts over that same period. One prominent change is this sharp increase. In "Why Are Married Women Working More? Some Macroeconomic Explanations," Aubhik Khan discusses how the composition of the labor force has changed since 1945, how women's work in the marketplace has increased so dramatically, and how macroeconomists explain these changes.
Reaching the top: challenges and opportunities for women leaders
This special edition of the Regional Review is based on presentations made at Reaching the Top: Challenges and Opportunities for Women Leaders, a conference sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston on March 3, 2004.
Changes in behavioral and characteristic determination of female labor force participation, 1975-2005
For policymakers, identifying the factors contributing to changes in labor force participation over time is important for setting appropriate policy regarding the nation?s productivity. Although the factors contributing to such changes over the past six decades have been well documented, more recent trends in women?s labor force participation beg further scrutiny. ; This article dissects the changes in the labor force participation rate over the past thirty years among women aged twenty-five to fifty-four. Using Current Population Survey data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the author ...