Reaching the top: challenges and opportunities: women leaders
Women have made impressive strides in the business and professional world. They hold half of all jobs in managerial and professional specialty occupations. Eight Fortune 500 companies have female CEOs. Women are also increasingly visible in leadership positions across the public, private, and professional sectors. ; On the other hand, only 10 percent of Fortune 500 companies have filled a quarter or more of their senior executive positions with women, and roughly 20 percent have no women executives at all. Meanwhile, anecdotes are accumulating that talented women are curtailing their labor ...
International trade, female labor, and entrepreneurship in MENA countries
Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries stand out in international comparisons of de jure obstacles to female employment and entrepreneurship. These obstacles are mirrored in low female labor rate participation and low entrepreneurship and ownership rates. Recent research suggests a connection between international trade and female labor participation. In this article, the authors focus on the relationship between international trade and gender in the MENA countries first analyzing female labor as a production factor, and then focusing on female entrepreneurship and firm ownership. ...
Milestones in working women's legal history
The list starts with the right to vote in 1920 and continues up through the court settlements of 2004.
Elimination of gender-related employment disparities through statistical process control
This paper proposes a novel approach that has the potential to hasten the eradication of gender disparities in employment. This approach relies upon the concept of statistical process control (SPC) to more systematically remedy disparate employment outcomes for women. SPC also serves as a new vehicle for conceptualizing the influence of industry on equal employment opportunity (EEO) outcomes. Using data from U.S. Current Population Surveys, we compare industries on EEO performance as assessed by a recently developed Systemic Gender Disparity Scorecard. The theory and practice of SPC suggest ...
Social changes lead married women into labor force
The ranks of women in the workforce jumped by more than 24 percentage points between 1955 and 1999. Credit labor-saving devices at home (such as the dishwasher), the birth-control pill and the preference by some men to marry a woman who works outside the home.
Spinning the top: gender, competition, and the long-run optimum
Although existing organizational and cultural practices have the benefit of creating incentives to increase output, they may also create perverse incentives that have negative economic effects outside the relatively easily measured world of market outcomes.
Nature or nurture? learning and female labor force dynamics
In the last century, the evolution of female labor force participation has been S-shaped: It rose slowly at first, then quickly, and has leveled off recently. Central to this dramatic rise has been the entry of women with young children. We argue that this S-shaped dynamic came from generations of women learning about the relative importance of nature (endowed ability) and nurture (time spent child-rearing) in determining children's outcomes. Each generation updates the beliefs of their parents, by observing others' outcomes. When few women participate in the labor force, most outcomes are ...
Every other woman