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Keywords:War - Economic aspects 

Journal Article
What will homeland security cost?

The increased spending on security by the public and private sectors in response to September 11 could have important effects on the U.S. economy. Sizable government expenditures, for example, could trigger a rise in the cost of capital and wages and a reduction in investment and employment in the private sector, while large-scale spending by businesses could hamper firm productivity. This article attempts to quantify the likely effects of homeland security expenditures on the economy. It suggests that the total amount of public- and private-sector spending will be relatively small: the ...
Economic Policy Review , Volume 8 , Issue Nov , Pages 21-33

Journal Article
The U.S. economy after September 11

This Economic Letter is adapted from remarks by Robert T. Parry, President and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, delivered on November 19, 2001, to the 24th Annual Real Estate and Economics Symposium sponsored by U.C. Berkeley's Fisher Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics
FRBSF Economic Letter

Journal Article
Industrial activity and the defense program

Federal Reserve Bulletin , Issue Mar , Pages 189-196

Working Paper
An investigation into the magnitude of foreign conflicts

Research Working Paper , Paper 97-14

Newsletter
The economic cost of war

It is difficult to measure the cost of the Iraq war and related expenses; it is at least as difficult to decide exactly what costs to measure. The May 2008 issue compares the two most widely cited estimates: one from the Congressional Budget Office and the other from researchers Joseph Stiglitz and Linda Bilmes. The newsletter also compares these estimates to U.S. GDP over the same time frame to get a better sense of the war's cost in relation to the entire U.S. economy.
Liber8 Economic Information Newsletter , Issue May

Journal Article
Ownership of demand deposits

Federal Reserve Bulletin , Issue Nov

Journal Article
The impact of the current defense build-down

For the third time since the end of World War II, the United States is engaged in a long-term defense build-down. This article provides a broad macroeconomic overview of the current build-down relative to the build-downs following the Korean War and the Vietnam War. In addition, the authors examine regional and industrial impacts of cuts in defense spending.
Quarterly Review , Volume 17 , Issue Aut

Report
Equilibrium: how the U.S. economy recovers from a crisis

Essay from the 2001 Annual Report.
Annual Report

Journal Article
Liquidity effects of the events of September 11, 2001

Banks rely heavily on incoming payments from other banks to fund their own payments. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, destroyed facilities in Lower Manhattan, leaving some banks unable to send payments through the Federal Reserve's Fedwire payments system. As a result, many banks received fewer payments than expected, causing unexpected shortfalls in banks' liquidity. These disruptions also made it harder for banks to redistribute balances across the banking system in a timely manner. In this article, the authors measure the payments responses of banks to the receipt of payments ...
Economic Policy Review , Volume 8 , Issue Nov , Pages 59-79

Journal Article
Measuring the effects of the September 11 attack on New York City

The attack on the World Trade Center had an enormous financial, as well as emotional, impact on New York City. This article measures the short-term economic effects on the city's labor force and capital stock through June 2002, the end of the recovery process at the World Trade Center site. Using a lifetime-earnings loss concept, the authors estimate that the nearly 3,000 workers killed in the attack lost $7.8 billion in prospective income. Moreover, the employment impact in the key affected sectors - such as finance, air transportation, hotels, and restaurants - translated into an estimated ...
Economic Policy Review , Volume 8 , Issue Nov , Pages 5-20

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