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Keywords:VAR 

Newsletter
How Interconnected Are Cryptocurrencies and What Does This Mean for Risk Management

In the past couple of years, the market for digital currencies, commonly known as cryptocurrencies because transactions are verified using cryptography, has expanded significantly in terms of transaction volumes, market capitalization, and the number of digital currencies in existence. On January 1, 2018, the market capitalizations (market caps1) of Bitcoin and Ethereum were $226 billion and $75 billion, respectively. By May 10, 2021, Bitcoin’s market cap had reached almost $1 trillion and Ethereum’s $478 billion.In this article, I measure the market’s interconnections in term of prices ...
Chicago Fed Letter , Issue 466 , Pages 5

Working Paper
Efficient VAR Discretization

The standard approach to discretizing VARs uses tensor grids. However, when the VAR components exhibit significant unconditional correlations or when there are more than a few variables, this approach creates large inefficiencies because some discretized states will be visited with only vanishingly small probability. I propose pruning these low-probability states, thereby constructing an efficient grid. I investigate how much an efficient grid improves accuracy in the context of an AR(2) model and a small-scale New Keynesian model featuring four shocks. In both contexts, the efficient grid ...
Working Paper , Paper 20-06

Journal Article
Computer Models at the Fed

Modeling the U.S. economy on computers has come a long way since the 1950s. It's still a work in progress
Econ Focus , Issue 2Q , Pages 3-5

Working Paper
How Persistent Are Unconventional Monetary Policy Effects?

Event studies show that the Federal Reserve's announcements of forward guidance and large Scale asset purchases had large and desired effects on asset prices but they do not tell us how long such effects last. Wright (2012) used a structural vector autoregression (SVAR) to argue that unconventional policies have very transient effects on bond yields, with half-lives of 3 to 6 months. The present paper shows, however, that the SVAR is very possibly misspecified, structurally unstable, forecasts very poorly and therefore delivers spurious inference. In addition, the implied in-sample return ...
Working Papers , Paper 2014-4

Working Paper
How Persistent Are Unconventional Monetary Policy Effects?

Event studies show that the Federal Reserve’s announcements of forward guidance and large-scale asset purchases had large and desired effects on asset prices but these studies do not tell us how long such effects last. Wright (2012) used a structural vector autoregression (SVAR) to argue that unconventional policies have very transient effects on bond yields, with half-lives of 3 to 6 months. The present paper shows, however, that this inference is unsupported for several reasons. First, accounting for model uncertainty greatly lengthens the estimated persistence. Second, and more ...
Working Papers , Paper 2014-04

Working Paper
How Persistent Are Unconventional Monetary Policy Effects?

This paper argues that one cannot precisely estimate the persistence of unconventional monetary policy (UMP) effects, especially with short samples and few observations. To make this point, we illustrate that the most influential model on the topic exhibits structural instability, and sensitivity to specification and outliers that render the conclusions unreliable. Restricted models that respect more plausible asset return predictability are more stable and imply that UMP shocks were persistent. Estimates of the dynamic effects of shocks should respect the limited predictability in asset ...
Working Papers , Paper 2014-04

Working Paper
How Persistent Are Unconventional Monetary Policy Effects?

The weight of the evidence indicates that unconventional monetary policy (UMP) shocks had persistent effects on yields. To make this point, this paper illustrates that the most influential SVAR model of UMP effects, which implies transient effects, exhibits structural instability, sensitivity to specification and single observations that render the conclusions unreliable. Restricted SVAR models that limit asset return predictability are more stable and imply that UMP shocks were persistent. This conclusion is consistent with evidence from micro studies, surveys of professional forecasters, ...
Working Papers , Paper 2014-04

Working Paper
How Persistent Are Unconventional Monetary Policy Effects?

The weight of the evidence indicates that unconventional monetary policy (UMP) shocks had persistent effects on yields. To make this point, this paper illustrates that the most influential SVAR model of UMP effects, which implies transient effects, exhibits structural instability, sensitivity to specification and single observations that render the conclusions unreliable. Restricted SVAR models that limit asset return predictability are more stable and imply that UMP shocks were persistent. This conclusion is consistent with evidence from micro studies, surveys of professional forecasters, ...
Working Papers , Paper 2014-004

Briefing
Monetary Policy across Space and Time

Many major macroeconomic events have occurred across multiple countries. This Economic Brief looks at similarities and differences among the euro area, the United Kingdom, and the United States and finds that macroeconomic variables tend to become more interconnected during periods of financial distress. Movements in monetary policy are highly correlated across all three regions. In addition, inflation and unemployment become less responsive to monetary policy shocks over time.
Richmond Fed Economic Brief , Issue August

Working Paper
FRED-SD: A Real-Time Database for State-Level Data with Forecasting Applications

We construct a real-time dataset (FRED-SD) with vintage data for the U.S. states that can be used to forecast both state-level and national-level variables. Our dataset includes approximately 28 variables per state, including labor market, production, and housing variables. We conduct two sets of real-time forecasting exercises. The first forecasts state-level labor-market variables using five different models and different levels of industrially-disaggregated data. The second forecasts a national-level variable exploiting the cross-section of state data. The state-forecasting experiments ...
Working Papers , Paper 2020-031

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