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Keywords:Systemic risk 

Putting systemic risk on the radar screen
As the nation ponders its response to the greatest financial crisis in generations, plans for regulatory reform are everywhere. Proposals to break up big financial companies, create a new agency for consumer protection, and lay out additional rules for derivatives, insurance companies, and hedge funds?they?re all on the table.
AUTHORS: Haubrich, Joseph G.
DATE: 2009

Journal Article
Resolving large, complex financial firms
How to best manage the failure of systemically important financial firms was the theme of a recent conference at which the latest research on the issue was presented. Here we summarize that research, the discussions that it sparked, and the areas where considerable work remains.
AUTHORS: Greenlee, Mark B.; Fitzpatrick, Thomas J.; Thomson, James B.
DATE: 2011

Journal Article
The Cleveland financial stress index
To promote stability in a dynamic fi nancial system, supervisors must monitor the system for risks at all times. The Cleveland Fed has developed an index of fi nancial stress, the CFSI, which is designed to track distress in the fi nancial system as it is building. The CFSI will help financial system supervisors monitor and understand the state of fi nancial markets on a real-time basis, and take appropriate regulatory or supervisory action as necessary.
AUTHORS: Bianco, Timothy; Oet, Mikhail V.; Ong, Stephen J.
DATE: 2012

Working Paper
Do bank bailouts reduce or increase systemic risk? the effects of TARP on financial system stability
Theory suggests that bank bailouts may either reduce or increase systemic risk. This paper is the first to address this issue empirically, analyzing the U.S. Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP). Difference-in-difference analysis suggests that TARP significantly reduced contributions to systemic risk, particularly for larger and safer banks located in better local economies. This occurred primarily through a capital cushion channel. {{p}} Results are robust to additional tests, including accounting for potential endogeneity and selection bias. Findings yield policy conclusions about the wisdom of bailouts, which banks might be the best targets for future bailouts, and the form these bailouts might take.
AUTHORS: Roman, Raluca; Berger, Allen N.; Sedunov, John
DATE: 2016-10-04

Journal Article
Systemic risk and the financial crisis: a primer
How did problems in a relatively small portion of the home mortgage market trigger the most severe financial crisis in the United States since the Great Depression? Several developments played a role, including the proliferation of complex mortgage-backed securities and derivatives with highly opaque structures, high leverage, and inadequate risk management. These, in turn, created systemic risk - that is, the risk that a triggering event, such as the failure of a large financial firm, will seriously impair financial markets and harm the broader economy. This article examines the role of systemic risk in the recent financial crisis. Systemic concerns prompted the Federal Reserve and U.S. Department of the Treasury to act to prevent the bankruptcy of several large financial firms in 2008. The authors explain why the failures of financial firms are more likely to pose systemic risks than the failures of nonfinancial firms and discuss possible remedies for such risks. They conclude that the economy could benefit from reforms that reduce systemic risks, such as the creation of an improved regime for resolving failures of large financial firms.
AUTHORS: Wheelock, David C.; Bullard, James B.; Neely, Christopher J.
DATE: 2009

Journal Article
Foreign currency loans and systemic risk in Europe
Foreign currency loans to the unhedged non-banking sector are remarkably prevalent in Europe and create a significant exchange-rate-induced credit risk to European banking sectors. In particular, Swiss franc (CHF)-denominated loans, popular in Eastern European countries, could trigger simultaneous bank failures if depreciation of the domestic currencies prevents unhedged borrowers from servicing the loans. Foreign currency loans thus pose a systemic risk from a ?common market shock? perspective. The author uses a novel dataset of foreign-currency loans from 17 countries for 2007-11 (collected by the Swiss National Bank) and builds on the method suggested by Ranciere, Tornell, and Vamvakidis (2010) to quantify this systemic risk. The author finds that systemic risk is substantial in the non-euro area, while it is relatively low in the euro area. However, CHF-denominated loans are not the underlying source of the high systemic risk: Loans denominated in other foreign currencies (probably to a large extent in euros) contribute significantly more to the systemic risk in the non-euro area than CHF-denominated loans. Furthermore, systemic risk shows high persistence and low volatility during the sample period. The author also finds that banks in Europe have continuously held more foreign-currency denominated assets than liabilities, indicating their awareness of the exchange-rate-induced credit risk they face.
AUTHORS: Yesin, Pinar
DATE: 2013

Journal Article
The credit crisis and cycle-proof regulation
This article was originally presented as the Homer Jones Memorial Lecture, organized by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, April 15, 2009.
AUTHORS: Rajan, Raghuram G.
DATE: 2009

Working Paper
The Differential Impact of Bank Size on Systemic Risk
We examine whether financial stress at larger banks has a different impact on the real economy than financial stress at smaller banks. Our empirical results show that stress experienced by banks in the top 1 percent of the size distribution leads to a statistically significant and negative impact on the real economy. This impact increases with the size of the bank. The negative impact on quarterly real GDP growth caused by stress at banks in the top 0.15 percent of the size distribution is more than twice as large as the impact caused by stress at banks in the top 0.75 percent, and more than three times as large as the impact caused by stress at banks in the top 1 percent. These results are broadly informative as to how the stringency of regulatory standards should vary with bank size, and support the idea that the largest banks should be subject to the most stringent requirements while smaller banks should be subject to successively less stringent requirements.
AUTHORS: Lorenc, Amy; Zhang, Jeffery Y.
DATE: 2018-09-28


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