Monetary policy in a small open economy: the case of Singapore
John H. Wood studies Singapore, a small open economy dedicated to growth through both saving and the attraction of foreign investment. He finds that the monetary authority's supporting role is the provision of a stable monetary environment, particularly a stable domestic price level. Singapore's monetary authority has unusual freedom from domestic constraints in fulfilling this role because of the government's conservative fiscal policy, control of labor relations, and disinclination to support unprofitable enterprises. Singapore has controlled its inflation by adjusting to changing world conditions. The record indicates that low inflation has been maintained by means of a money growth rule.
AUTHORS: Wood, John H.
Growth and government policy: lessons from Hong Kong and Singapore
AUTHORS: Kasa, Kenneth
On the road to Singapore
AUTHORS: Pozdena, Randall
Does Singapore invest too much?
AUTHORS: Kasa, Kenneth
Do capital controls affect the response of investment to saving? evidence from the Pacific Basin
This paper examines the effect of capital controls on the response of investment to savings in Pacific Basin countries. A robust finding is that the size of the savings coefficient tends to be smaller (larger) in countries with relatively higher (lower) capital controls. Additionally, relaxation in capital controls for the most part had no discernible impact on the savings- investment relationship in individual country time-series regressions. At least a partial resolution to these puzzles is found in the government policy response: Countries with a relatively high saving-investment correlation tended to have governments that countered widening current account imbalances with fiscal policy; the reverse generally held true for countries with low saving-investment correlation. In fact, for this latter group of countries, financing the government deficit through foreign borrowing was a major factor in loosening the link between national saving and investment.
AUTHORS: Kim, Sun Bae
External shocks and adjustment in four Asian economics--1978-87
AUTHORS: Moreno, Ramon
Banking system developments in the four Asian tigers
AUTHORS: Huh, Chan Guk
Economic conditions in Singapore and Vietnam: a monetary policymaker's report
Each year, the President of the San Francisco Fed joins the Federal Reserve Board Governor responsible for liaison with Asia on a "fact-finding" trip to the region. These trips advance the Bank's broad objectives of serving as a repository of expertise on economic, banking, and financial issues relating to the Pacific Basin and of building ties with policymakers and economic officials there. The knowledge gained and the contacts developed are valuable in understanding trends affecting the Twelfth District, in carrying out responsibilities in banking supervision, and in ensuring that policymakers have the understanding of global economic developments necessary to conduct policy and promote the stability of financial markets. This Economic Letter summarizes President Yellen's report to the Head Office Board of Directors on her trip to Singapore and Vietnam in November 2007. (For a discussion of findings from the trip regarding the banking and financial sectors, please see the February 2008 issue of the Bank's publication, Asia Focus, http://www.frbsf.org/publications/banking/asiafocus/2008/Asia_Focus_Feb_08.pdf
AUTHORS: Yellen, Janet L.
Growth accounting with misallocation: Or, doing less with more in Singapore
We derive aggregate growth-accounting implications for a two-sector economy with heterogeneous capital subsidies and monopoly power. In this economy, measures of total factor productivity (TFP) growth in terms of quantities (the primal) and real factor prices (the dual) can diverge from each other as well as from true technology growth. These distortions potentially give rise to dynamic reallocation effects that imply that change in technology needs to be measured from the bottom up rather than the top down. We show an example, for Singapore, of how incomplete data can be used to obtain estimates of aggregate and sectoral technology growth as well as reallocation effects. We also apply our framework to reconcile divergent TFP estimates in Singapore and to resolve other empirical puzzles regarding Asian development.
AUTHORS: Fernald, John G.; Neiman, Brent
Currency speculation and the optimum control of bank lending in Singapore dollar: a case of partial liberalization
The Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) has a long-standing policy of controlling bank lending in Singapore dollars to nonresidents and to residents who use the funds outside Singapore. While the control may prevent the internationalization of the Singapore dollar and contain exchange rate volatility, it can hinder the deepening and widening of the financial markets in Singapore. ; This paper suggests three policy options that would allow traders and investors to borrow Singapore dollars without any restrictions, while making it costly for speculators since their activities can cause exchange rate volatility which arguably imposes external costs to society.
AUTHORS: Chan, Kenneth S.; Ngiam, Kee-Jin